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Building a Nation The Articles of Confederation & The U.S. Constitution SWBAT:

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Presentation on theme: "Building a Nation The Articles of Confederation & The U.S. Constitution SWBAT:"— Presentation transcript:

1 Building a Nation The Articles of Confederation & The U.S. Constitution SWBAT:

2 What issues did the US face after the Revolutionary war? Domestic/Internal -Building a stable central government -Weak monetary system -Continental officers upset at government’s refusal to reimburse back pay Foreign/External British trade restrictions Economic recession Spanish border dispute near Georgia

3 Powers of the Articles of Confederation Could Declare War/Make Peace Coin Money Manage Foreign Affairs Establish a Postal System Could Not Enforce treaties Impose taxes Regulate Trade Organize a court system Call state militia for service Protect copyrights Take other necessary actions to run the federal government

4 In what ways were the Articles of Confederation actually successful? (p.159) The settlement of the Northwest territories Various trade treaties with Holland, Prussia, Sweden, and others

5 The Virginia Plan Written (mostly) by James Madison, head of VA Commerce committee Also known as the “Randolph Plan” after VA governor, Edmund Randolph Suggested scrapping Articles of Confederation (A of C), & creating whole new gov’t

6 The Virginia Plan (Cont’d) Called for Supreme Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches Proposed 2 houses for the legislature Give Federal Gov’t power to create and raise taxes – One nominated by the people – One nominated by state gov’ts Proposed representation based on population, as opposed to just 1 vote per state

7 The New Jersey Plan Keep Articles of Confederation Single house of legislature with each state equal Have power to raise taxes and regulate trade On June 19, delegates decided to write a whole new constitution, starting with the VA Plan as a basis

8 The Connecticut Compromise Proposed by Roger Sherman of CT Also known as The Great Compromise Proposed two houses, 1 based on population, 1 getting two senators each 1 Representative for every 40K citizens in the state How should slaves be counted? Slave vs non- slave states

9 Handling the Slave issue Southern states wanted slaves counted for representation, but not taxes In order to be fair to all states, a committee proposed the 3/5 Compromise Each slave would be counted as 3/5 of a normal citizen For every 5 slaves, the state got 3 more added to its “total population”. This was used to calculate the # of reps and calculate taxes

10 Taxation and Trade Regulation Southerners feared federal trade regulation might tax export of farm products and import of new slaves Northerners desired a federal gov’t to control foreign imports Compromise: New congress could not tax exports; could not ban slave trade until 1808 or impose high taxes on import of new slaves

11 Moving to the next phase… Although everyone had to compromise, they were finished by September, 1787 Now it had to be sent to the states for approval 9 of the 13 states had to ratify it to take effect

12 Summary of the Constitution New Constitution based on several principles POPULAR SOVEREIGNTY - Rule by the people - Representatives as opposed to direct democracy FEDERALISM - divided gov’t between federal & state gov’ts SEPARATION OF POWERS

13 Legislative: Writes the law Executive: Enforces the law Judicial: Interprets the law

14 Checks & Balances Legislative Executive Override Veto w/ 2/3 vote Confirm Executive appts Ratify treaties Declare war Appropriate Money Impeach & remove executive Judicial Create Lower Federal Courts Impeach & remove judges Propose amendments to overrule Judicial decisions Approve Appointment of Federal judges

15 Checks & Balances (Cont’d) Executive Checks & Balances Legislative Propose laws Veto laws Call special sessions of Congress Makes appts to federal posts Negotiates foreign treaties Judicial Appoints federal judges Pardon Federal Offenders

16 Checks & Balances (Cont’d) Judicial Checks & Balances Executive Can declare executive actions unconstitutional Legislative Can declare acts of Congress unconstitutional

17 Ratification & The Great Debate The Federalists, who supported ratification, led a highly organized campaign that promoted the benefits of a strong central government. Antifederalists opposed ratification because they believed that the Constitution endangered the independence of the states. While several states quickly gave their approval to the new government, other states presented strong opposition. Massachusetts voted for ratification only after Federalists promised to attach a bill of rights to the Constitution. Another concession provided support for an amendment that enhanced states’ powers. By July 1788, 11 states had ratified the Constitution, and the United States launched its new government. The remaining two states ratified the Constitution after the new government was in place.

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