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The Constitution of the United States of America

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1 The Constitution of the United States of America
Ch. 5 Sec. 2 The Constitution of the United States of America

2 The Constitutional Convention
Nationalists – People who supported a strong central gov’t. George Washington Ben Franklin James Madison Alexander Hamilton Wanted to set up a convention with the states to revise AOC.

3 Nationalists

4 The Constitutional Convention
Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. 55 delegates from every state (Except RI). George Washington presiding officer. James Madison kept the records Closed to public.

5 The Virginia Plan Edmund Randolph introduces the Virginia Plan
Throw out AOC National gov’t with power to raise taxes 3-branch gov’t system (Legislative, Executive, Judicial)

6 Edmund Randolph

7 The Virginia Plan Proposed the legislature be divided into two houses.
Individuals elect members to first house. Members of second house would be elected by first house members (not individuals). Number of members in first house based on population of each state. Who has the advantage? Is this system fair?

8 Virginia Plan

9 The New Jersey Plan William Paterson introduces the New Jersey Plan
Revise (don’t throw out) the AOC Congress has the power to levy taxes and regulate trade. ONE house, each state has equal representation. Now who has the advantage? Is this fair? Rejected; Convention votes to proceed with Virginia Plan to create a new constitution.

10 William Paterson

11 Question: In what ways did the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan differ? The Virginia Plan wanted to throw out the Articles of Confederation, while the New Jersey Plan wanted to revise the Articles of Confederation. The Virginia Plan called for two houses of Congress with representation based on a state’s population. The New Jersey Plan called for one house of Congress with equal representation. The Virginia Plan called for three branches of government, whereas the New Jersey Plan did not.

12 Conflict and Compromise
Problems with new plan: Big States vs. Little States Slave States vs. Free States A special committee of undecided delegates were appointed to create a compromise. “Strong feeling” delegates left out of meeting.

13 The Great Compromise House of Representatives Senate
Members elected by the people. Number of representatives from each state based on population. Senate Equal representation of each state. (2) State legislators choose members.

14 Slavery Issue The Three-Fifths Compromise
Every five enslaved people in a state would count as three free persons to determine representation and taxes. Southern delegates opposed any interference with the slave trade by the new Constitution. Northern delegates wanted the national gov’t to control imports/exports. Compromise: 1. Congress couldn’t tax exports. 2. Congress couldn’t ban slave trade until 1808.

15 Constitution Approved
In September 1787, the Philadelphia Convention delegates approved the Constitution they wrote out. Needs 9 out of 13 states to ratify, or approve, the document before it takes effect.

16 U.S. Constitution

17 U.S. Constitution

18 The Framework of the Constitution
Constitution based on popular sovereignty, or rule of the people. Creates a system of gov’t called federalism. Divides federal and state gov’ts. Separation of Powers among three branches of gov’t.

19 The Framework of the Constitution
Legislative Branch Makes laws. Divided into two houses. Executive Branch Enforces laws Headed by President Judicial Branch Interprets Laws Made up of federal courts.

20 Branches of Government

21 Branches of Government

22 Checks and Balances Checks and Balances created to prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful. Powers of President Proposing legislation, Commander in Chief, appointing judges, and can veto or approve laws. Powers of Legislative Branch Make laws, override vetoes with 2/3 vote, senate approves or rejects presidential appointments. Impeach, or formally accuse of misconduct Powers of the Judicial Branch Interprets laws in the form of court cases.

23 Checks and Balances

24 Constitution Changes The Constitution can be changed by adding amendments to it. Two-step process: Proposal and Ratification 1. Introduced in Congress, passed by 2/3 vote. 2. Ratified by ¾ of the states.

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