Presentation on theme: "The Constitution of the United States of America"— Presentation transcript:
1The Constitution of the United States of America Ch. 5 Sec. 2The Constitution of the United States of America
2The Constitutional Convention Nationalists – People who supported a strong central gov’t.George WashingtonBen FranklinJames MadisonAlexander HamiltonWanted to set up a convention with the states to revise AOC.
7The Virginia Plan Proposed the legislature be divided into two houses. Individuals elect members to first house.Members of second house would be elected by first house members (not individuals).Number of members in first house based on population of each state.Who has the advantage? Is this system fair?
9The New Jersey Plan William Paterson introduces the New Jersey Plan Revise (don’t throw out) the AOCCongress has the power to levy taxes and regulate trade.ONE house, each state has equal representation.Now who has the advantage? Is this fair?Rejected; Convention votes to proceed with Virginia Plan to create a new constitution.
11Question:In what ways did the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan differ?The Virginia Plan wanted to throw out the Articles of Confederation, while the New Jersey Plan wanted to revise the Articles of Confederation. The Virginia Plan called for two houses of Congress with representation based on a state’s population. The New Jersey Plan called for one house of Congress with equal representation. The Virginia Plan called for three branches of government, whereas the New Jersey Plan did not.
12Conflict and Compromise Problems with new plan:Big States vs. Little StatesSlave States vs. Free StatesA special committee of undecided delegates were appointed to create a compromise.“Strong feeling” delegates left out of meeting.
13The Great Compromise House of Representatives Senate Members elected by the people.Number of representatives from each state based on population.SenateEqual representation of each state. (2)State legislators choose members.
14Slavery Issue The Three-Fifths Compromise Every five enslaved people in a state would count as three free persons to determine representation and taxes.Southern delegates opposed any interference with the slave trade by the new Constitution.Northern delegates wanted the national gov’t to control imports/exports.Compromise:1. Congress couldn’t tax exports.2. Congress couldn’t ban slave trade until 1808.
15Constitution Approved In September 1787, the Philadelphia Convention delegates approved the Constitution they wrote out.Needs 9 out of 13 states to ratify, or approve, the document before it takes effect.
18The Framework of the Constitution Constitution based on popular sovereignty, or rule of the people.Creates a system of gov’t called federalism.Divides federal and state gov’ts.Separation of Powers among three branches of gov’t.
19The Framework of the Constitution Legislative BranchMakes laws.Divided into two houses.Executive BranchEnforces lawsHeaded by PresidentJudicial BranchInterprets LawsMade up of federal courts.
22Checks and BalancesChecks and Balances created to prevent any one branch from becoming too powerful.Powers of PresidentProposing legislation, Commander in Chief, appointing judges, and can veto or approve laws.Powers of Legislative BranchMake laws, override vetoes with 2/3 vote, senate approves or rejects presidential appointments.Impeach, or formally accuse of misconductPowers of the Judicial BranchInterprets laws in the form of court cases.
24Constitution ChangesThe Constitution can be changed by adding amendments to it.Two-step process: Proposal and Ratification1. Introduced in Congress, passed by 2/3 vote.2. Ratified by ¾ of the states.