Presentation on theme: "Chapter 2 Section 2 Notes. After the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, the colonies were now independent. Based on the words of Locke, the colonies."— Presentation transcript:
After the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, the colonies were now independent. Based on the words of Locke, the colonies were looking for a republic without a monarchy where the government would rule “ with the consent of the governed.” No government at this point was based on this principle by Locke.
It became necessary for the colonies to begin to create their own government. Each of the colonies had began drafting their own constitution after the Declaration of Independence. While at the Second Continental Congress, the delegates had a difficult time creating a structure for a central government.
In November of 1777, the Articles of Confederation were created as an association of independent, sovereign states with certain common goals. The Central Government could do the following: – Set national policies – Deal with foreign policies – Borrow and Coin money – Set up post offices – Establish army – Declare war
Congress was the chief agent within this government. – 9 out of 13 colonies had to agree on any law. – All 13 colonies had to agree to amend any article. – No Executive Branch – Congress could not impose taxes.
After Independence, many colonists faced tough economic times. The colonists were no longer a part of Britain’s trade which made the colonist have a higher customs duty on imported items. The money that congress had issued was not backed up by hard currency (gold and silver) which led to inflation. Congress under the Articles couldn’t tax but the individual states were allowed to tax. Many people found it difficult to pay their debts and would be jailed.
These laws hurt the farmers which would lead to various riots. The most famous riot was Shay’s Rebellion. 1786- In Massachusetts, Daniel Shay led a mob of angry farmer to shut down debtor courts. Eventually put down by Massachusetts militia.
In 1786, James Madison and Washington decided to meet with other delegate to discuss a change in the current government. In May 1787, Congress met in Philadelphia for a Constitutional Convention. Key Delegates: Roger Sherman, Alexander Hamilton, James Wilson, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin. Unanimously voted Washington for President.
Issues at the Convention Difficult to find a balance between large and small states Difficult to find a balance between Northern and Southern interests. Debate over those who wanted a strong national government and those for states’ rights.
Virginia Plan Presented by Edmund Randolph. This government included: – Three Branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial branch. – Legislature would choose the executive to carry out the laws. – Legislature is bicameral- made up of two houses. – Members would be chosen in proportion to each states’ population. New Jersey Plan Presented by William Paterson of New Jersey in objection to the other plan because it gave larger states more power. This government included: – Some features of the Confederation. – Gave congress additional powers. – One house legislature with equal representation.
Connecticut Delegates proposed a compromise: Upper House (Senate) will have two representatives from each state. Lower House (House of Representatives) will be based on the population of the states. 3/5ths Compromise- All whites plus 3/5ths of the slave population would be counted for representation and taxation.
On September 17, 1787, the Constitutional Convention adjourned having 39 delegates from 12 states sign the constitution. A debate emerged over the constitution between Federalists and Anti-Federalists.
Federalists Federalism - sharing power between a national government and the states. Popular with wealthy and in the cities. This group favored: – Strong National Government – The separation of powers within the Constitution limited government powers. Anti-Federalists Opposed the Constitution This group came from different backgrounds and social classes but were mostly farmers and planters. This group feared: – a strong National Government would lead to tyranny. – The central government would abuse both states’ rights and individual liberties. – Thought the government favored the wealthy and educated.
A series of 85 Essays. Written anonymously and published in a New York newspaper. The writer (Publius) discussed and defended the various parts of the declaration. Main Goal: Persuade New York Delegates to ratify the Constitution.
Anti-Federalists wanted a Bill of Rights before ratifying the Constitution. In the Constitution (Article VII), 9/13 colonies would have to ratify the Constitution. Article V states that Congress or state conventions had the right to propose amendments. Then, these amendments go to the states.
1791, 10 amendments were approved and these became the Bill of Rights. These amendments protect individuals and states against too much government power. Amendments 1-8 deal with individual civil liberties.
9 th Amendment states that listing certain rights given to the people did not mean that others do not exist. 10 th amendment defines two kinds of government. Delegate powers Reserved powers