Presentation on theme: "CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION Meets in Philadelphia from May to September of 1787. President of the Convention- George Washington. Architect of the Constitution-"— Presentation transcript:
CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION Meets in Philadelphia from May to September of 1787. President of the Convention- George Washington. Architect of the Constitution- James Madison.
CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION The Virginia Plan- Designed a government with a president, courts, and a bicameral legislature. Representation is each house of Congress would be based on population. Appealed to the larger states with higher populations. The New Jersey Plan- Called for a unicameral legislature with equal representation for all states. Appealed to smaller states with lower populations.
The Great Compromise- Also called the Connecticut Compromise because it was created by Roger Sherman. Set up a 2 house (bicameral) legislature. The House of Representatives- based on population. The Senate- Equal representation for all states.
OTHER COMPROMISES The Three-Fifths Compromise South wanted to count slaves as part of their population. The North said that slaves should not be counted because they are property. The compromise stated that 3/5 of the slave population would be counted in each state. The Electoral College A compromise between popular vote and congressional appointment. Established a group of people picked by each state legislature who would select the president and vice president.
RATIFICATION Federalists: Supported the Constitution. Example: Alexander Hamilton Showed their support for federalism power is divided between a national govt and state govts. Mainly large landowners who wanted a strong federal govt. Anti-Federalists: Opposed the Constitution. Example: Thomas Jefferson Believed it would create a strong federal govt that would take rights away from the states and people. Compromise: A Bill of Rights was added. All 13 states ratified it by 1790.
STRUCTURE OF THE CONSTITUTION Preamble- Introduction that states the goals and purposes of the govt. Article 1- Outlines the powers and structure of the legislative branch (Congress.) Article 2- Creates and lists the powers of the executive branch headed by a president and vice president. Article 3- Establishes the judicial branch of govt consisting of a Supreme Court and other lower courts.
Article 4- Explains the relationship between the national govt and the states. Contains Extradition Clause and Full Faith and Credit Clause. Says that the National Govt will protect the states from invasion. Article 5- Explains how the Constitution can be amended (changed.) Article 6 (Supremacy Clause)- Declares the Constitution to be the supreme law of the land. National law is always superior to state law. Article 7- Explains how the Constitution was to be ratified.
AMENDMENT PROCESS Amendment - any change to the Constitution Amendment Process Proposal An amendment has to be proposed by two-thirds of the Congress or two-thirds of the state legislatures. Ratification Three- fourths of the states must ratify it.
5 PRINCIPLES OF GOVERNMENT Popular Sovereignty- The idea that the power of the govt lies with the people. Govts should draw their power from the consent of the governed. The peoples will is most strongly expressed through elections. Rule of Law The idea that the law applies to everyone, even those who govern. The govt should be strong, but not too strong.
Separation of Powers The idea of dividing the govt into 3 separate branches with 3 separate functions. Supported by Montesquieu. Checks and Balances Each branch of govt is allowed to check or limit the power of another so one branch does not get too powerful.
FEDERALISM Federalism- Power is divided between the national govt and the state govt. Expressed Powers- Powers specifically granted to the national govt. Sometimes called enumerated powers. Examples Coin money, declare war Reserved Powers- Powers given to the states. Examples conduct elections, establish local govts Concurrent Powers- Powers given to both the national and state govts. Examples collect taxes, set up courts
CLAUSES OF IMPORTANCE Supremacy Clause- The Constitution and other laws made by the federal govt is the supreme Law of the Land. Necessary and Proper Clause- Allows Congress to exercise powers not specifically written in the Constitution. These powers are known as implied powers.