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Government under the Articles of Confederation 1781

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1 Government under the Articles of Confederation 1781
A loose alliance of independent states A one-house legislature No executive or judicial branches Only states can tax States may coin money No regulations of trade between states Most Power held by states.

2 Building the Constitution
Problem Solution The newly formed colonies needed a central government. The Articles of Confederation were adopted as the country’s first constitution The weak central government created by the Articles led to diplomatic problems with other nations. The states began to act as independent countries to protect their trade rights. Delegates at the Constitution Convention adopted the Virginia Plan, which proposed the creation of a new federal government Opponents of the proposed new federal government feared that it would become too powerful. The Constitution divided power between the federal government and the state governments and establish three branches of power in the Federal gov Constitutional delegates feared that one branch of the federal government would become too powerful. The Constitution gave each branch of federal government the ability to limit the power of the other branches. Delegates realized that the Constitution might need to be changed over time. A system for making amendments was added, and the Constitution was ratified

3 The Federal System Concurrent Powers Reserved
Powers concurrent to national and state governments; for example the power to tax Enumerated Powers Powers enumerated To national Government; for example, Declaring war Reserved Powers Powers reserved For state Governments; For example Setting up Educational system

4 The Virginia Plan-Edmund Randolf
The federal government would have 3 separate branches-Legislative, Executive, and Judicial Congress would have two houses: the House of Representative and the Senate. In both houses the representatives from each state would be based on its population. Voters in each state would elect the members of the House of Representatives who, in turn, would choose the members of the Senate from a list of people nominated by state legislature. Congress would have all the powers it held under the Articles of Confederation plus the power to make laws for states, to override state laws, and to force states to obey national laws. Congress would choose members of judicial branch as well as a President.

5 The New Jersey Plan- William Patterson
All States, large or small, would have equal number of representatives in Congress( just as they had under the Articles). Congress would consist of only one house, to be elected by state legislature rather than directly by people. Congress would choose several people to serve in executive branch. These people would, in turn, have the power to appoint members of judicial branch.

6 Executive Branch Legislative Branch Judicial Branch
President Carries Out Law Checks on the Legislative Branch Can approve Laws Can veto Laws Can call special sessions of Congress Makes appointments to federal posts Negotiates foreign trade Checks on Judicial Branch: Appoints federal judges Can pardon federal offenders Legislative Branch Congress Makes Laws Checks on the Judicial Branch: Creates lower federal Courts Can Impeach and remove judges Can propose amendments to overrule judicial decisions Approves appointments of Federal Judges Checks on the Executive Branch Can Override presidential veto Confirms executive appointments Ratifies Treaties Can declare war Appropriates money Can impeach and remove president Judicial Branch Supreme Court Interprets the Law Checks on the Executive Branch: Can declare executive actions unconstitutional Checks on the Legislative Branch Can declare acts of congress unconstitutional


8 Early Political Parties
Alexander Hamilton John Adams Federalists 1. Led by merchants, bankers, and lawyers living primarily in New England. 2. Favored a strong central government. 3. Interpreted the Constitution loosely 􀃆 loose constructionists [“implied powers”]. 4. Believed in a government by the elite, educated, and wealthy. 􀃆 5. Anglophiles Pro-England. 6.Favored Hamilton’s financial policies: • upport for the Bank of the U.S. America must have credit for industrial development, commercial activities, and the operations of government. Full payment of the national debt. 7. Passed the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) in which individual rights could be limited. 8. Vision for the US 􀃆 trade center, industry, and self-sufficient nation.

9 Thomas Jefferson James Madison
Democratic-Republicans 1. Led by planters, farmers, and wage earners living primarily in the South and West 􀃆 a decentralized, agrarian republic. 2. The “ideal citizen” 􀃆 yeoman farmer. 3. Favored strong state governments over a strong national government. 4. Interpreted the Constitution literally 􀃆 strict constructionists [“enumerated powers”]. 5. Rule by the educated masses. 6. Francophiles 􀃆 Pro-French. 7. Bill of Rights was sacred 􀃆 passed the VA and KY Resolves. 8. Opposed Hamilton’s financial policies [especially against the BUS]. 􀃆 9. Vision for the US and agricultural society with little trade and industry.

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