Presentation on theme: "Government under the Articles of Confederation 1781"— Presentation transcript:
1 Government under the Articles of Confederation 1781 A loose alliance of independent statesA one-house legislatureNo executive or judicial branchesOnly states can taxStates may coin moneyNo regulations of trade between statesMost Power held by states.
2 Building the Constitution ProblemSolutionThe newly formed colonies needed a central government.The Articles of Confederation were adopted as the country’s first constitutionThe weak central government created by the Articles led to diplomatic problems with other nations. The states began to act as independent countries to protect their trade rights.Delegates at the Constitution Convention adopted the Virginia Plan, which proposed the creation of a new federal governmentOpponents of the proposed new federal government feared that it would become too powerful.The Constitution divided power between the federal government and the state governments and establish three branches of power in the Federal govConstitutional delegates feared that one branch of the federal government would become too powerful.The Constitution gave each branch of federal government the ability to limit the power of the other branches.Delegates realized that the Constitution might need to be changed over time.A system for making amendments was added, and the Constitution was ratified
3 The Federal System Concurrent Powers Reserved Powers concurrent to national and state governments; for example the power to taxEnumerated PowersPowers enumeratedTo nationalGovernment;for example,Declaring warReservedPowersPowers reservedFor stateGovernments;For exampleSetting upEducationalsystem
4 The Virginia Plan-Edmund Randolf The federal government would have 3 separate branches-Legislative, Executive, and JudicialCongress would have two houses: the House of Representative and the Senate.In both houses the representatives from each state would be based on its population.Voters in each state would elect the members of the House of Representatives who, in turn, would choose the members of the Senate from a list of people nominated by state legislature.Congress would have all the powers it held under the Articles of Confederation plus the power to make laws for states, to override state laws, and to force states to obey national laws.Congress would choose members of judicial branch as well as a President.
5 The New Jersey Plan- William Patterson All States, large or small, would have equal number of representatives in Congress( just as they had under the Articles).Congress would consist of only one house, to be elected by state legislature rather than directly by people.Congress would choose several people to serve in executive branch. These people would, in turn, have the power to appoint members of judicial branch.
6 Executive Branch Legislative Branch Judicial Branch President Carries Out LawChecks on the Legislative BranchCan approve LawsCan veto LawsCan call special sessions of CongressMakes appointments to federal postsNegotiates foreign tradeChecks on Judicial Branch:Appoints federal judgesCan pardon federal offendersLegislative BranchCongress Makes LawsChecks on the Judicial Branch:Creates lower federal CourtsCan Impeach and remove judgesCan propose amendments to overrulejudicial decisionsApproves appointments of Federal JudgesChecks on the Executive BranchCan Override presidential vetoConfirms executive appointmentsRatifies TreatiesCan declare warAppropriates moneyCan impeach and remove presidentJudicial BranchSupreme Court Interprets the LawChecks on the Executive Branch:Can declare executive actionsunconstitutionalChecks on the Legislative BranchCan declare acts of congressunconstitutional
8 Early Political Parties Alexander Hamilton John AdamsFederalists1. Led by merchants, bankers, and lawyers living primarily in New England.2. Favored a strong central government.3. Interpreted the Constitution loosely loose constructionists [“implied powers”].4. Believed in a government by the elite, educated, and wealthy. 5. Anglophiles Pro-England.6.Favored Hamilton’s financial policies: •upport for the Bank of the U.S.America must have credit for industrial development, commercial activities, and the operations of government.Full payment of the national debt.7. Passed the Alien and Sedition Acts (1798) in which individual rights could be limited.8. Vision for the US trade center, industry, and self-sufficient nation.
9 Thomas Jefferson James Madison Democratic-Republicans1. Led by planters, farmers, and wage earners living primarily in the South and West a decentralized, agrarian republic.2. The “ideal citizen” yeoman farmer.3. Favored strong state governments over a strong national government.4. Interpreted the Constitution literally strict constructionists [“enumerated powers”].5. Rule by the educated masses.6. Francophiles Pro-French.7. Bill of Rights was sacred passed the VA and KY Resolves.8. Opposed Hamilton’s financial policies [especially against the BUS]. 9. Vision for the US and agricultural society with little trade and industry.