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3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Forms of the present subjunctive (just forms! Not uses!) The subjunctive (el subjuntivo) is used mainly in the Dependent Clause. The present subjunctive is formed by dropping the –o from the yo form of the present indicative and adding the opposite endings : AR verbs : e, es,e, emos, en ER & IR verbs: a, as, a, amos, an The indicative is used to express actions, states, or facts the speaker considers to be certain. The subjunctive expresses the speaker’s attitude toward events, as well as actions or states that the speaker views as uncertain. ¡ATENCIÓN!
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Verbs with irregular yo forms show that same irregularity in all forms of the present subjunctive. Go to the “yo” drop the “o” and add the opposite ending! conocerconozca decirdiga hacerhaga oíroiga ponerponga seguirsiga tenerten___ traertrai___ venirven___ verve__
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Verbs with stem changes in the present indicative show the same changes in the present subjunctive. Stem-changing IR verbs also undergo a stem change in the nosotros/as form of the present subjunctive. Now you fill in the forms based on the given info. pensar (e:ie)piense, pienses, ________, ________, piensen jugar (u:ue)________, juegues, juegue, ____________, jueguen mostrar (o:ue)muestre, __________, muestre, mostremos, _________ entender (e:ie)entienda, entiendas, _________, entendamos, entiendan resolver (o:ue)________, resuelvas, resuelva, ___________, resuelvan pedir (e:i/i)pida,_______, pida, __________, pidan sentir (e:ie/i)sienta, sientas, _________, sintamos, ________ dormir (o:ue/u)________, duermas, duerma, ________, duerman Verbs that end in –car, –gar, and –zar undergo spelling changes in the present subjunctive. You make the change in all forms! sacar: saque jugar: juegue cruzar: cruce ¡ATENCIÓN!
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The following five verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive. Dardé des dé demos den Estaresté estés esté estemos estén Irvaya vayas vaya vayamos vayan Sabersepa sepas sepa sepamos sepan Sersea seas sea seamos sean
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Verbs of will and influence A clause is a sequence of words that contains both a conjugated verb and a subject (expressed or implied). In a dependent noun clause, the words in the sequence function together as a noun. El hombre le pide al Diablo que lo ayude.
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc When the subject of a sentence’s main (independent) clause exerts influence or will on the subject of the subordinate clause, the verb in the subordinate clause takes the subjunctive.
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc.3.1-7
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Pedir is used with the subjunctive to ask someone to do something. Preguntar is used to ask questions, and is not followed by the subjunctive. No te pido que lo hagas ahora. I’m not asking you to do it now. No te pregunto si lo haces ahora. I’m not asking you if you’re doing it now. ¡ATENCIÓN!
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Martín quiere que grabemos este anuncio para el viernes. El abogado recomienda que lea el contrato antes de firmar. Martín wants us to record this ad by Friday. The lawyer recommends that I read the contract before signing. Es necesario que lleguen al estreno antes de la una. Tus padres se oponen a que salgas tan tarde por la noche. It’s necessary that they arrive at the premiere before one o’clock. Your parents object to your going out so late at night.
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The infinitive, not the subjunctive, is used with verbs and expressions of will and influence if there is no change of subject in the sentence. The que is unnecessary in this case. Prefiero que vayas en marzo. I prefer that you go in March. SubjunctiveInfinitive Quiero ir al Caribe en enero. I want to go to the Caribbean in January.
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Verbs of emotion When the main clause expresses an emotion like hope, fear, joy, pity, or surprise, the verb in the subordinate clause must be in the subjunctive if its subject is different from that of the main clause. Espero que la película tenga subtítulos. Es una lástima que no puedas ir a la fiesta. I hope the movie will have subtitles. It’s a shame you can’t go to the party.
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The subjunctive is also used with expressions of emotion that begin with ¡Qué… (What a…!/It’s so…!) ¡Qué pena que él no vaya! What a shame he’s not going! ¡ATENCIÓN!
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The infinitive, not the subjunctive, is used with verbs and expressions of emotion if there is no change of subject in the sentence. The que is unnecessary in this case. SubjunctiveInfinitive No me gusta llegar tarde. I don’t like to arrive late. Me molesta que la clase no termine a tiempo. It bothers me that the class doesn’t end on time.
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc Verbs of doubt or denial When the main clause implies doubt, uncertainty, or denial, the verb in the subordinate clause must be in the subjunctive if its subject is different from that of the main clause. No creo que ella nos quiera engañar. Dudan que la novela tenga éxito. I don’t think that she wants to deceive us. They doubt that the novel will be successful.
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The expression ojalá (I hope; I wish) is always followed by the subjunctive. The use of que with ojalá is optional. Ojalá (que) no llueva. I hope it doesn’t rain. Ojalá (que) no te enfermes. I hope you don’t get sick. The subjunctive is also used after quizás and tal vez (maybe, perhaps) when they signal uncertainty. Quizás vengan a la fiesta. Maybe they’ll come to the party. ¡ATENCIÓN!
3.1 The subjunctive in noun clauses © and ® 2011 Vista Higher Learning, Inc The infinitive, not the subjunctive, is used with verbs and expressions of doubt or denial if there is no change in the subject of the sentence. The que is unnecessary in this case. Es imposible rodar sin los permisos. Es improbable que rueden sin los permisos. It’s impossible to shoot the movie without the permits. It’s unlikely that they’ll shoot the movie without the permits.
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