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Some basics about sentences w/ the Subjunctive Sentences w/ subjunctive have 2 clauses connected by QUE A clause is part of sentence with a subject & verb.

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Presentation on theme: "Some basics about sentences w/ the Subjunctive Sentences w/ subjunctive have 2 clauses connected by QUE A clause is part of sentence with a subject & verb."— Presentation transcript:

1 Some basics about sentences w/ the Subjunctive Sentences w/ subjunctive have 2 clauses connected by QUE A clause is part of sentence with a subject & verb In a sentence w/ subjunctive, there must be 2 different subjects Must have TRIGGER in the 1 st clause (verb or expression of will or influence, emotion, doubt, etc) that will cause 2 nd part of sentence to be in subjunctive Verb in 1st clause of sentence is in present indicative because its real Verb in 2nd clause is in subjunctive because it may or may not happen or be real Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–1

2 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–2 The present subjunctive The subjunctive (el subjuntivo) is used mainly in multiple clause sentences which express will, influence, emotion, doubt, or denial. To form present subjunctive 1) Take the yo form present 2) Drop the –o 3) Add opposite endings

3 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–3 The indicative is used to express actions, states, or facts the speaker considers to be certain. The subjunctive expresses the speakers attitude toward events, as well as actions or states that the speaker views as uncertain.

4 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–4 Verbs with irregular yo forms show that same irregularity throughout the forms of the present subjunctive.

5 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–5 Verbs that have stem changes in the present indicative have the same changes in the present subjunctive. Only –ir verbs undergo stem changes in the nosotros & vosotros forms.

6 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–6 The following five verbs are irregular in the present subjunctive.

7 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–7 Verbs that end in –car, –gar, and –zar undergo spelling changes in the present subjunctive. ****The present subjunctive form of hay is haya. Ella espera que haya una solución. She hopes there is a solution. sacar: saque jugar: juegue almorzar: almuerce

8 Práctica Completa con el subjuntivo 1. Ella quiere que yo _____________________(hablar) más. 2. Ellos desean que tú_______________________ (decir) la verdad. 3. Yo mando que nosotros______________________(salir) a tiempo. 4. Los padres insisten en que los hijos no ________________________(ir) lejos. 5. Esperamos que ella_________________________(saber) cómo llegar. 6. La profesora quiere que los estudiantes____________________ (hacer) la tarea. 7. Ud. prefiere que nosotros_______________________(leer) más. 8. Recomiendo que el hombre___________________(estar) aquí antes de las Yo propongo que tú _______________________(escribir) los apuntes. 10. Quieren que yo ______________________________(explicar) la respuesta. Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–8

9 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–9 Verbs of will & influence/WISHING WANTING VERBS A clause is a group of words that contains both a conjugated verb and a subject (expressed or implied).

10 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–10 When the subject of the main clause of a sentence exerts influence or will on the subject of the 2 ND (subordinate) clause, the verb in the 2 nd (subordinate) clause must be in the subjunctive. MAIN CLAUSECONNECTOR2 nd /SUBORDINATE CLAUSE Yo quieroquetú vayas al médico.

11 Some basics about sentences w/ the Subjunctive Sentences w/ subjunctive have 2 clauses connected by QUE A clause is part of sentence with a subject & verb In a sentence w/ subjunctive, there must be 2 different subjects Must have TRIGGER in the 1 st clause (verb or expression of will or influence, emotion, doubt, etc) that will cause 2 nd part of sentence to be in subjunctive Verb in 1st clause of sentence is in present indicative because its real Verb in 2nd clause is in subjunctive because it may or may not happen or be real Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–11

12 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–12 The verbs & expressions below of WISHING/WANTING or Will & Influence will TRIGGER the need for subjunctive in the 2nd clause.

13 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–13 Necesito que consigas estas pastillas en la farmacia. El médico siempre me recomienda que deje de fumar. I need you to get these pills at the pharmacy. The doctor always recommends that I quit smoking. Insisto en que vayas a la sala de emergencias. Se oponen a que salgas si estás enfermo. I insist that you go to the emergency room. They object to your going out if youre sick. Examples of sentences with Verbs of Will & Influence and the subjunctive.

14 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–14 If there is no change of subject in the sentence, then the 2 nd verb will be in the INFINITIVE. Quiero ir a Bogotá en junio.Prefiero que vayas en agosto. I want to go to Bogota in June.I prefer that you go in August. *In order for subjunctive to be used, the subject in the 2nd clause must be different from subject in 1st clause.

15 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–15 Verbs of emotion When the main clause expresses an emotion like hope, fear, joy, pity, or surprise, the verb in the subordinate (2 nd ) clause must be in the subjunctive if its subject is different from that of the main clause. Me alegro de que te recuperes pronto. Tus padres tienen miedo de que necesites una operación. Im happy that you recover quickly.Your parents are afraid that you you need an operation.

16 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–16

17 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–17 The subjunctive is also used with expressions of emotion that begin with ¡Qué…! (What a…!/Its so…!) The expression ojalá (I hope; I wish) is always followed by the subjunctive. The use of que with ojalá is optional. ¡Qué pena que él no vaya! What a shame hes not going! Ojalá (que) no llueva. I hope it doesnt rain. Ojalá (que) no te enfermes. I hope you dont get sick.

18 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–18 The infinitive, not the subjunctive, is used with verbs and expressions of emotion if there is no change of subject in the sentence. No me gusta llegar tarde.Es mejor que lo hagas ahora. I dont like to be late.Its better that you do it now.

19 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–19 Verbs of doubt or denial When the main clause implies doubt, uncertainty, or denial, the verb in the subordinate clause must be in the subjunctive if its subject is different from that of the main clause. No cree que él nos quiera engañar. Dudan que eso sea un buen tratamiento. She doesnt believe that he wants to deceive us. They doubt that would be a good treatment.

20 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–20

21 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–21 The infinitive, not the subjunctive, is used with verbs and expressions of doubt or denial if there is no change in the subject of the sentence. Es imposible viajar hoy.Es improbable que él viaje hoy. Its impossible to travel today. Its unlikely that he would travel today.

22 Copyright © 2008 Vista Higher Learning. All rights reserved. 4.1–22 The subjunctive is also used after quizá(s) and tal vez (maybe; perhaps) when they signal uncertainty, even if there is no change of subject in the sentence. Quizás vengan a la fiesta. Maybe theyll come to the party.


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