3 The Pope Crowns Charlemagne because… He was a devout ChristianHe united much of the old Roman Empire in EuropeHe was a brilliant military leaderHe helped the pope put down a rebellion in ItalyBy crowning Charlemagne, the Pope is asserting papal authority
4 Charlemagne’s main achievements… Unified much of EuropeBecause of his devotion to the Christian faith…He strengthened the ChurchHe increased education and learning throughout Europe so that people could read the Bible.
5 Investiture Controversy The Players: Pope Gregory VII and King Henry IVThe Setting: Medieval Europe, the pope needs support from the monarchy, the monarchy needs support from the pope, BOTH monarchy and pope appoints church officials
7 Investiture Controversy The Conflict: In 1075, Pope Gregory VII officially asserted that the papal power is the sole universal power and ONLY the papacy could select church officials, like the bishops. King Henry IV continued to appoint church officials like bishops.
9 Pope Gregory’s Reaction He excommunicated Henry IVExcommunicate means to remove someone from the churchHenry was removed from the church and deposed as the German king
10 Henry IV apologizes…Henry IV asks Pope Gregory VII for forgiveness by standing barefoot in the snow for three days outside where the Pope was staying.Pope Gregory VII had to forgive him and Henry IV became emperor again.Henry IV later invaded Rome and Pope Gregory VII fled
12 The Lasting Effect…In 1122 church leaders & nobles agreed to have the pope select church officials at the Concordat of WormsThe pope establishes his dominance and power over the monarchy temporarilyThe continued conflict will eventually lead to a split between monarchy and papacy
14 Reflection Quick Write Pretend you are Henry IV, write one paragraph (at least 5 sentences) explaining your decision to apologize to Pope Gregory VII. Would you really mean it? How far would you go to convince the popePretend you are Pope Gregory VII, write one paragraph (at least 5 sentences) explaining your decision to take Henry IV back and accept his apology. Do you really believe him? Would you trust him?