Presentation on theme: ".. In 1054 Henry vii was crowned king of Germany; later he also became Holy Roman emperor. Gregory vii was pope. During their time, the concept between."— Presentation transcript:
In 1054 Henry vii was crowned king of Germany; later he also became Holy Roman emperor. Gregory vii was pope. During their time, the concept between monarchs and the church erupted
Many Europeans admired Pope Gregory vii, who also instituted many church reforms. At the same time his policies aroused hatred and contempt. Gregory wanted the church to be independent of secular rulers, so he banned Lay investiture which mean (appointment of bishops by anyone who is not a member of the clergy), invested or presented. Bishops with the ring and staff that symbolized their office. Only the pope had the right to appoint and install bishops in office.
Pope Gregory got an angry response from the Holy Roman emperor, Henry the iv. He argued that bishops held their lands as royal fiefs. The feud heated up as the two men exchanged insulting letters. At the same time rebellious German princes supported the pope.
In 1076, Gregory excommunicated Henry, freeing his subjects from their allegiance to the emperor. Then the pope headed to the north to crown a new emperor. Henry was forced to make peace. In 1077 henry represent himself to he pope as a repentant sinner. Gregory knew that Henry was just trying to save his throne. The pope had no choice but to forgive a confessed sinner.
Gregory lifted the excommunication, and Henry returned to Germany to subdue his rebellious nobles He also took revenge on Gregory by leading an army to Rome and forcing the pope into exile.
The struggle over investiture dragged on for almost 50 years. In 1122, both sides accepted a treaty known as the Concordat of Worms. This treaty declared that the church had the sole power to elect and invest bishops.