2BellworkHave you ever believed in something so strongly that you would be willing to die for it?Would you have persuaded others to go along with you?
3Eastern Roman EmpireThe Emperor Justinian had restored the empire in the Mediterranean, but fell apart after his deathJustinian is well known for his codification of law: The Body of Civil Law – basis for legal system in Europe
4Byzantine EmpireThe Eastern Roman Empire was too big to protect, had no money, a smaller population due to plague and many threatsThe Byzantine Empire would consist of the eastern Balkans and Asia Minor; it was Greek and ChristianChurch known as Eastern Orthodox ChurchHead of the church was the patriarch
5Constantinople Trade Building Europe’s greatest center of trade; crossroads between the east and the westBuildingDominated by immense palace complex, hundreds of churches and a huge arena, The HippodromeMany public work projectsHagia Sopia – Church of the Holy Wisdom
6Problems in the EmpireSplit between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic ChurchEast did not accept that pope was the head of the Christian faithPope and patriarch excommunicated each otherBeginning of schismSeljuk Turks began attacking the empire
7Honors 1st Crusade 2nd Crusade 3rd Crusade People Involved Results Read pages 306 – 308: Use a table like the one below to summarize the results of the first three Crusades.1st Crusade2nd Crusade3rd CrusadePeople InvolvedResults
8RegularCreate a flow chart of the first, second and third crusades.
9CrusadesA series of military expeditions to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims by Christian EuropeansWanted liberation for Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the infidelsPope had the west respond to the east cry for helpMotivating factors: religion, adventure, fighting, gain territory, riches, fame/fortune
10Early Crusades1st Crusade led by the French: captured Antioch, took the Holy City of Jerusalem2nd Crusade: Saint Bernard of Clairvaux appealed to King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany; total failure, Jerusalem fell to Muslims forces under Saladin3rd Crusade: Emperor Fredrick Barbarossa of Germany, Richard I of England and Philip II Augustus of France – Fredrick drowned in a river, English and French forces unable to move inland, Philip went home and Richard negotiated a settlement with Saladin so Christian pilgrims could have free access to Jerusalem
11Later Crusades4th Crusade: initiated by Pope Innocent III; taken off track by a dispute over the Byzantine throne; crusaders sack the city and weaken the commercial empire; no longer a great powerChildren’s Crusade: let by Nicholas of Cologne claimed inspired by God; pope told children to go home when they reached Italy; French children perished in a storm at sea while others were sold into slavery in North Africa
12Spanish CrusadeReconquista – the Spanish effort to drive Muslims out of SpainInquisition – court of the church to suppress heresy. Suspects were questioned and tortured usually included Jews and Muslims
13Effects Attacks on Jews began Some Christians called them “murderers of Christ”Bitterness and hatred between Muslims and ChristiansBroke down feudalismLessened power of the popeIncrease power of the kingTrue nation-states began to developFour strong states emerged: Portugal, Spain, England and France