Presentation on theme: "Middle Ages Semester 1 – Day 61. Bellwork Have you ever believed in something so strongly that you would be willing to die for it? Would you have persuaded."— Presentation transcript:
Middle Ages Semester 1 – Day 61
Bellwork Have you ever believed in something so strongly that you would be willing to die for it? Would you have persuaded others to go along with you?
Eastern Roman Empire The Emperor Justinian had restored the empire in the Mediterranean, but fell apart after his death Justinian is well known for his codification of law: The Body of Civil Law – basis for legal system in Europe
The Eastern Roman Empire was too big to protect, had no money, a smaller population due to plague and many threats The Byzantine Empire would consist of the eastern Balkans and Asia Minor; it was Greek and Christian Church known as Eastern Orthodox Church Head of the church was the patriarch Byzantine Empire
Constantinople Trade – Europes greatest center of trade; crossroads between the east and the west Building – Dominated by immense palace complex, hundreds of churches and a huge arena, The Hippodrome – Many public work projects – Hagia Sopia – Church of the Holy Wisdom
Problems in the Empire Split between the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Catholic Church – East did not accept that pope was the head of the Christian faith – Pope and patriarch excommunicated each other – Beginning of schism Seljuk Turks began attacking the empire
Honors 1 st Crusade 2 nd Crusade 3 rd Crusade People Involved Results Read pages 306 – 308: Use a table like the one below to summarize the results of the first three Crusades.
Regular Create a flow chart of the first, second and third crusades.
Crusades A series of military expeditions to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims by Christian Europeans Wanted liberation for Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the infidels Pope had the west respond to the east cry for help Motivating factors: religion, adventure, fighting, gain territory, riches, fame/fortune
Early Crusades 1 st Crusade led by the French: captured Antioch, took the Holy City of Jerusalem 2 nd Crusade: Saint Bernard of Clairvaux appealed to King Louis VII of France and Emperor Conrad III of Germany; total failure, Jerusalem fell to Muslims forces under Saladin 3 rd Crusade: Emperor Fredrick Barbarossa of Germany, Richard I of England and Philip II Augustus of France – Fredrick drowned in a river, English and French forces unable to move inland, Philip went home and Richard negotiated a settlement with Saladin so Christian pilgrims could have free access to Jerusalem
Later Crusades 4 th Crusade: initiated by Pope Innocent III; taken off track by a dispute over the Byzantine throne; crusaders sack the city and weaken the commercial empire; no longer a great power Childrens Crusade: let by Nicholas of Cologne claimed inspired by God; pope told children to go home when they reached Italy; French children perished in a storm at sea while others were sold into slavery in North Africa
Spanish Crusade Reconquista – the Spanish effort to drive Muslims out of Spain Inquisition – court of the church to suppress heresy. Suspects were questioned and tortured usually included Jews and Muslims
Effects Attacks on Jews began Some Christians called them murderers of Christ Bitterness and hatred between Muslims and Christians Broke down feudalism Lessened power of the pope Increase power of the king True nation-states began to develop Four strong states emerged: Portugal, Spain, England and France