3 Causes of the Reformation Renaissance emphasis on the secular challenged Church authorityPrinting press helped spread secular ideasPopes resented efforts of kings to control themGermany was divided into competing statesMerchants resented paying church taxes
4 Problems in the Catholic Church Critics call Church leaders corruptPopes lived extravagant livesPope Alexander VI admitted to fathering several childrenMany monks were poorly educatedPriestly marriage, gambling, and drunkenness were problemsAlexander VI (circa ), pope ( ), who was noted for his worldliness and corruption.Born Rodrigo de Borja (Italian Borgia) in Játiva, near Valencia, Spain, he was adopted into the family of his maternal uncle, Alfonso Borgia (later Pope Callistus III). Even as a teenager, Rodrigo was given ecclesiastical grants and revenues. After studying law at Bologna, he became successively a cardinal, a bishop, and an able administrator in the papal court. As a member of the powerful Borgia family, he acquired wealth and lived a life of worldly pleasure. He had four children by a Roman noblewoman, Vanozza Catanei; the two most famous were Cesare and Lucrezia Borgia. During the conclave of 1492, following the death of Innocent VIII, Rodrigo was elected pope. Even though he used bribery to secure the necessary two-thirds of the votes, his election was generally welcomed.The course of his pontificate was determined by economic and political considerations. He established the machinery for a reform of papal finances; recovered the territories of the Papal States, which had been ruled by local tyrants; and tried to unite Christendom against the Turks. Other notable acts included his issuance (1493) of the Bull of Demarcation, which divided the New World between Spain and Portugal, and his sending of the first missionaries to America. In he ordered the execution of the Florentine church reformer Girolamo Savonarola. The course of Alexander's pontificate was also determined by family considerations; he greatly increased the fortunes of his children through ecclesiastical and political appointments and marriages. Some modern studies have tended to minimize the spiritual laxity of his pontificate, but the positive aspects of his reign remain overshadowed by corruption and ambition. He died August 18, 1503.
5 Early Calls for ReformJohn Wycliffe & Jan Hus taught that the Bible had more authority than Church leadersGirolamo Savanarola called for reforms and asked people to burn worldly possessions on a “Bonfire of the Vanities”He was later burned at the stake
6 Girolamo SavonarolaGirolamo Savonarola (Ferrara, then Duchy of Ferrara, September 21, 1452 – Florence, May 23, 1498), also translated as Jerome Savonarola or Hieronymous Savonarola, was a Italian Dominican priest and, briefly, ruler of Florence, who was known for religious reformation and anti-Renaissance preaching and his book burning and destruction of art.Oddly, Lorenzo de Medici, the previous ruler of Florence and patron of many Renaissance artists, was both a former patron of Savonarola and eventually, the target of Savonarola's preaching.After the overthrow of the Medici in 1494, Savonarola was the sole leader of Florence, setting up a democratic republic. Characterizing it as a "Christian and religious Republic", one of its first acts was to make sodomy, previously punishable by fine, into a capital offence. His chief enemies were the Duke of Milan and Pope Julius II, who issued numerous restraints against him, all of which were ignored.In 1497 he and his followers carried out the famous Bonfire of the Vanities. They sent boys from door to door collecting items associated with moral laxity: mirrors, cosmetics, lewd pictures, pagan books, gaming tables, fine dresses, and the works of immoral poets, and burnt them all in a large pile in the Piazza della Signoria of Florence. Fine Florentine Renaissance artwork was lost in Savonarola's notorious bonfires, including paintings by Sandro Botticelli thrown on the pyres by the artist himself.Florence soon tired of Savonarola's hectoring. During his Ascension Day sermon on May 4, 1497, bands of youths rioted, and the riot became a revolt: taverns reopened, and men gambled publicly.On May 13, 1497 he was excommunicated by Pope Julius II, and in 1498, he was simultaneously hanged and burned, in the same place and manner that he had condemned others. He was charged with uttering prophecies, sedition, and religious error. Jacopo Nardi, who recorded the incident in his Istorie della città di Firenze, said that his executioner lit the flame crying, "The one who wanted to burn me is now himself put to the flames." Niccolò Machiavelli, author of The Prince, also witnessed and wrote about the execution. The Medici regained control over Florence.A plaque commemorates the site of Savonarola's execution in the Piazza della Signoria, Florence.In the twentieth century, a movement for the canonization of Savonarola began to develop within the Catholic Church, with many judging his excommunication and execution to have been unjust...If there had been television, back in 1497, Girolamo Savonarola would have followed "Praise the Lord," on the Christian channel. A Dominican monk, he was a powerful speaker and a popular reformer. He stood on street corners and before the altars of the churches of Florence and demanded the Church reform itself. He harrangued the "libertine Sodomites" of Renaissance Florence and annually gathered together the evil classics, hoarded by these sinners, and burned them in what he called the "bonfire of the vanities." Ovid, Propertius and even Boccaccio, fed the flames. All this before the invention of the hot dog, or even the marshmallow. If Girolamo had confined himself to "libertine Sodomites" and the classics, he probably would have gotten along fine, at least until a Medici became Pope. Unfortunately, he called the Pope a "libertine Sodomite," which didn't sit well at all. The Pope sent the Inquisition to Florence on a "fact-finding mission." The Inquisition worked "fact finding" pretty much like the American Congress works such things. In other words, after deciding what the "facts" were, they set out to find them. And, in this case, they "found" that Girolamo was a heretic. He actually "confessed" to being one while reclining comfortably on a piece of furniture known as a "rack." The popular "bonfire of the vanities" was given to people of Florence one more time. The featured attraction was Girolamo Savonarola, along with his essays, sermons and pamphlets. All of which goes to show that burning books can lead to getting burned. You can, if you wish, read both the "evil classics," and the works of Savonarola. Most large libraries have both.
7 The monk Savonarola's activities, which were increasingly taking on the appearance of fanaticism, caused more and more people to oppose the preacher. He was put on trial in the city in which he had hoped to bring about a political and moral revival. Accused of heresy, he was hanged with two other Dominican monks on 23 May 1498 on the Florentine Piazza della Signoria, and then burned at the stake. Their ashes were scattered in the Arno.
8 Martin Luther Became a monk in 1505 Taught at the University of WittenbergStood against the sale of indulgences as practiced by Johann Tetzel
10 Katherine von BoraLuther’s wife.Katharine von Bora
11 The 95 ThesesOctober 31, 1517Luther posts 95 formal statements on the door of the church at WittenbergThis is the beginning of the Reformation
12 Luther’s Other IdeasPeople are saved only by faith in God’s gift of forgiveness while the Church taught that “good works” were needed for salvationThe Bible, not the pope was the source of spiritual authorityBelievers should read and interpret the Bible for themselves, priests were not needed
13 The Response to LutherLuther was surprised at how fast his ideas spreadMany people had been upset with the Church for a long timeLuther’s protests were seen as an excuse to throw off Church control
14 The Pope’s Threat Pope Leo X threatened to excommunicate Luther Luther’s students threw the pope’s threatening letter into a bonfireLeo excommunicated Luther
15 Leo X Denied the request for an annulment by Henry VIII Portrait by Raphael"It was for this achievement that Raphael has remained famous throughout the centuries. Perhaps those who connect his name only with beautiful Madonnas and idealized figures from the classical world may even be surprised to see Raphael's portrait of his great patron Pope Leo X of the Medici family, in the company of two cardinals. There is nothing idealized in the slightly puffed head of the near- sighted Pope, who has just examined an old manuscript (somewhat similar in style and period to the Queen Mary's Psalter. The velvets and damasks in their various rich tones add to the atmosphere of pomp and power, but one can well imagine that these men are not at ease. These were troubled times, for we remember that at the very period when this portrait was painted Luther had attacked the Pope for the way he raised money for the new St Peter's. It so happens that it was Raphael himself whom Leo X had put in charge of this building enterprise after Bramante had died in 1514, and thus he had also become an architect, designing churches, villas and palaces and studying the ruins of ancient Rome. Unlike his great rival Michelangelo, though, he got on well with people and could keep a busy workshop going. Thanks to his sociable qualities the scholars and dignitaries of the papal court made him their companion. There was even talk of his being made a cardinal when he died on his thirty-seventh birthday, almost as young as Mozart, having crammed into his brief life an astonishing diversity of artistic achievements."
16 The Emperor’s Opposition Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was a devout CatholicCharles called Luther to the town of Worms in Germany to stand trial in 1521Luther was asked to recant, take back his statements, he refused
18 “I am bound by the scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not retract anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwise, here I stand, may God help me. Amen.”
19 The Edict of WormsCharles V declared Luther an outlaw and a heretic one month laterNo one in the empire was to give Luther food or shelter, all of his books were to be burnedPrince Frederick the Wise of Saxony sheltered Luther in his castle
20 Fredrick the WiseSaved Martin Luther from the fury of the Catholic Church.
21 Luther Translates the Bible While in exile, Martin Luther translates the Bible into GermanChurch services are held in German, not LatinLuther taught that ministers should be free to marryLuther’s followers become known as Lutherans
22 The Peasant’s Revolt Luther’s revolution spreads to society in 1524 German peasants demand an end to serfdom and begin to riotGerman princes put down the rebellion by killing as many as 100,000 people
23 Germany at War Many northern German princes liked Luther’s beliefs. They wanted to seize lands owned by the Church and become independent of Charles V.Princes loyal to the pope signed an agreement to fight together to against LutheranismPrinces who supported Luther became known as Protestant
24 England Becomes Protestant England breaks ties with the Roman Catholic Church for political and personal, not religious, reasons
25 Henry VIII Wants a Son Henry was married to Catherine of Aragon She gave birth to six children, only their daughter Mary survivedHenry wanted to divorce CatherineThe pope turned down his request for an annullmentThe pope did not want to offend Catherine’s powerful nephew, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
27 Catherine of AragonHenry and Catherine were married 24 years.
28 Mary I Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Aunt of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V.CatholicAlso known as “Bloody Mary”.Queen Mary I of England reigned as Queen of England for a short five years (r ), the first reigning queen since the disputed Mathilda in the 12th Century. Most historians consider her reign to be unfruitful in that she never was able to fulfill her dream of returning England to the Roman Catholic Church. She also never had any children of her own to continue her dynasty in England. Her foreign policies met with failure as well.Born in 1516 to England's King Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon, Mary lived quiet life as a royal princess until about 1527 when the king began to seek annulment of his marriage to her mother. Since Catherine had not produced a male heir, Henry feared that if Mary inherited the throne civil war might result. Since the pope refused to grant an annulment, in 1533 Henry's bishops dissolved the marriage and allowed Henry to marry Anne Boleyn, who soon gave birth to Mary's half-sister, Elizabeth. In all, England thus broke away from the Roman Catholic Church and began to follow Anglicanism. After Catherine's death, Henry in turn executed Anne Boleyn on a trumped-up charges of adultery conspiracy. His next wife, Jane Seymour, gave birth to his long-desired heir, Edward, so both Mary and Elizabeth were treated as royal bastards. Edward VI followed his father as king in 1547, but died already in 1553. Mary became queen only after a faction of Protestant nobles tried to put Lady Jane Grey, or the "nine day queen," on the throne. Mary's overwhelming support by the powerful averted a serious civil war. Only a handful of executions followed, including Lady Jane. Mary immediately went to work bringing the Roman Catholic faith back to England. She initially did this by rescinding the religious proclamations of Edward VI, and replacing them with old English laws enforcing heresy against the Church. In carrying out the last action, Mary earned her nickname, "Bloody Mary," because during her reign, she had more than 300 persons burned at the stake for heresy. Among them was the Archbishop of Canterbury, Thomas Cranmer. Chiefly because of her support of the papacy and the Roman Catholic Church, she was never really able to gain the support of nobles and most of her countrymen.In her drive to find an heir to the English throne, at the age of 37 Mary wed prince Philip II of Spain. This made her subjects even more apprehensive about her, because many viewed Spain as an archenemy of England. Twice during her reign she believed that she was with child, and even showed the symptoms of pregnancy. It seems that she had a "hysterical pregnancy" -- she had convinced herself so that her body responded as if she were pregnant. It has also been supposed that she might have had an ovarian cyst that not only prevented her from conceiving a child, but could have contributed to her early death in 1558.Mary's foreign affairs had also met failure as well. Encouraged to ally with Spain by Philip in a war against France, Mary lost Calais, the only English held possession in France. Sadly, in 1558, deserted by her husband who went back to Spain to claim the Spanish throne, Mary realized that she would not be able to provide an heir, and was forced to recognize her sister, Elizabeth, an Anglican Protestant, as the next ruler of England. Although at several points Mary threatened and put pressure on on her sister to convert to Roman Catholicism, she successfully resisted, survived, and became Queen Elizabeth I.
29 The Reformation Parliament In 1529, Henry had the Parliament pass laws to end the pope’s power in EnglandIn 1533, Henry married Anne BoleynThey had a daughter, ElizabethParliament approved the Act of Supremacy which made the king, not the pope, the head of the Church of England
30 Anne BoleynThis account of Anne Boleyn's speech at her execution was recorded in the Annals of John Stow.The execution took place on 19 May 1536 at 8 o'clock in the morning. It was the first public execution of an English queen.This account mentions the famous 'hangman of Calais' who was brought to London for the execution.All these being on a scaffold made there for the execution, the said Queen Anne said as followeth: Masters, I here humbly submit me to the law, as the law hath judged me, and as for mine offences, God knoweth them, I remit them to God, beseeching him to have mercy on my soul; and I beseech Jesu save my Sovereign and master the King, the most goodliest, and gentlest Prince that is, and long to reign over you, which words she spake with a smiling countenance: which done, she kneeled down on both her knees, and said, To Jesu Christ I commend my soul and with that word suddenly the hangman of Calais smote off her head at one stroke with a sword: her body with the head was buried in the choir of the Chapel in the Tower.This account of Anne Boleyn's speech at her execution was made by the Tudor chronicler Edward Hall.'Good Christian people, I am come hither to die, for according to the law, and by the law I am judged to die, and therefore I will speak nothing against it. I am come hither to accuse no man, nor to speak anything of that, whereof I am accused and condemned to die, but I pray God save the king and send him long to reign over you, for a gentler nor a more merciful prince was there never: and to me he was ever a good, a gentle and sovereign lord. And if any person will meddle of my cause, I require them to judge the best. And thus I take my leave of the world and of you all, and I heartily desire you all to pray for me. O Lord have mercy on me, to God I commend my soul.'After being blindfolded and kneeling at the block, she repeated several times: 'To Jesus Christ I commend my soul; Lord Jesu receive my soul.'
31 Elizabeth IDaughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.
32 Consequences of Henry’s Changes Henry closed all English monasteries and seized Church wealth and landsAnne Boleyn was later accused of adultery and treasonShe was beheaded in the Tower of London in 1536Henry’s third wife gave birth to a son, Edward
33 Jane Seymour Third wife of Henry VIII Mother of Edward VI Seymour, Jane (1509?-1537), queen consort of England ( ) as the third wife of King Henry VIII. The sister of Edward Seymour, and probably born in Wiltshire, she served as a lady in waiting to Catherine of Aragón and later to Anne Boleyn, the first two wives of Henry. Less than two weeks after the execution of Anne Boleyn (1536), Jane privately married the king. She died on October 24, 1537, 12 days after the birth of her son, Edward, Henry's only male heir, later King Edward VI of England.
36 After Henry’s Death All three of Henry’s children eventually ruled Edward VI ruled only six yearsMary returned Catholicism to England when she became queen and had many Protestants killedElizabeth Returned England to Protestantism
37 Edward VICrowned in 1547 at nine years old.Died in 1553.
39 Mary I Portrait by Antonius Mor Mary I (18 February 1516 – 17 November 1558), also known as Mary Tudor, was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 6 July 1553 (de jure) or 19 July 1553 (de facto) until her death. Mary, the fourth and penultimate monarch of the Tudor dynasty, is remembered for her attempt to return England from Protestantism to Roman Catholicism. To this end, she had almost three hundred religious dissenters executed; as a consequence, she is often known as Bloody Mary. Her religious policies, however, were in many cases reversed by her successor and half-sister, Elizabeth I.Mary Tudor is sometimes confused with her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots, who lived at approximately the same time.She holds a Tudor rose and the pendant jewell may be that given to her by Henry VIII in 1542.
40 Elizabeth I The Rainbow portrait. The rainbow symbolized peace after storms.Ears and eyes on her mantle represent omniscience and discernment
44 The Virgin Queen The “Sieve Portrait”. The sieve was an ancient symbol of virginity.
45 Elizabeth Restores Protestantism Elizabeth had the Parliament set up a national churchPeople were required to attend church or pay a fineThis was the Church of England or Anglican ChurchElizabeth wanted to make the church acceptable to CatholicsShe adapted the Book of Common Prayer and allowed trappings of the Catholic Church
46 The Spanish Armada Philip II of Spain planned to attack England Elizabeth had supported Protestant Spaniards against Philip130 ships, 8,000 sailors, and 19,000 soldiers were set to invadeThe English navy defeated the Spanish Armada