Causes of the Reformation Renaissance emphasis on the secular challenged Church authority Printing press helped spread secular ideas Popes resented efforts of kings to control them Germany was divided into competing states Merchants resented paying church taxes
Problems in the Catholic Church Critics call Church leaders corrupt Popes lived extravagant lives Pope Alexander VI admitted to fathering several children Many monks were poorly educated Priestly marriage, gambling, and drunkenness were problems
Early Calls for Reform John Wycliffe & Jan Hus taught that the Bible had more authority than Church leaders Girolamo Savanarola called for reforms and asked people to burn worldly possessions on a “Bonfire of the Vanities” He was later burned at the stake
Martin Luther Became a monk in 1505 Taught at the University of Wittenberg Stood against the sale of indulgences as practiced by Johann Tetzel
Katherine von Bora Luther’s wife. Katharine von Bora
The 95 Theses October 31, 1517 Luther posts 95 formal statements on the door of the church at Wittenberg This is the beginning of the Reformation
Luther’s Other Ideas People are saved only by faith in God’s gift of forgiveness while the Church taught that “good works” were needed for salvation The Bible, not the pope was the source of spiritual authority Believers should read and interpret the Bible for themselves, priests were not needed
The Response to Luther Luther was surprised at how fast his ideas spread Many people had been upset with the Church for a long time Luther’s protests were seen as an excuse to throw off Church control
The Pope’s Threat Pope Leo X threatened to excommunicate Luther Luther’s students threw the pope’s threatening letter into a bonfire Leo excommunicated Luther
Leo X Denied the request for an annulment by Henry VIII Portrait by Raphael
The Emperor’s Opposition Holy Roman Emperor Charles V was a devout Catholic Charles called Luther to the town of Worms in Germany to stand trial in 1521 Luther was asked to recant, take back his statements, he refused
Charles V Holy Roman Emperor King of Spain
“I am bound by the scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and will not retract anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwise, here I stand, may God help me. Amen.”
The Edict of Worms Charles V declared Luther an outlaw and a heretic one month later No one in the empire was to give Luther food or shelter, all of his books were to be burned Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony sheltered Luther in his castle
Fredrick the Wise Saved Martin Luther from the fury of the Catholic Church.
Luther Translates the Bible While in exile, Martin Luther translates the Bible into German Church services are held in German, not Latin Luther taught that ministers should be free to marry Luther’s followers become known as Lutherans
The Peasant’s Revolt Luther’s revolution spreads to society in 1524 German peasants demand an end to serfdom and begin to riot German princes put down the rebellion by killing as many as 100,000 people
Germany at War Many northern German princes liked Luther’s beliefs. They wanted to seize lands owned by the Church and become independent of Charles V. Princes loyal to the pope signed an agreement to fight together to against Lutheranism Princes who supported Luther became known as Protestant
England Becomes Protestant England breaks ties with the Roman Catholic Church for political and personal, not religious, reasons
Henry VIII Wants a Son Henry was married to Catherine of Aragon She gave birth to six children, only their daughter Mary survived Henry wanted to divorce Catherine The pope turned down his request for an annullment The pope did not want to offend Catherine’s powerful nephew, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V
Henry VIII Portrait by Hans Holbein
Catherine of Aragon Henry and Catherine were married 24 years.
Mary I Daughter of Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. Aunt of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Catholic Also known as “Bloody Mary”.
The Reformation Parliament In 1529, Henry had the Parliament pass laws to end the pope’s power in England In 1533, Henry married Anne Boleyn They had a daughter, Elizabeth Parliament approved the Act of Supremacy which made the king, not the pope, the head of the Church of England
Elizabeth I Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn.
Consequences of Henry’s Changes Henry closed all English monasteries and seized Church wealth and lands Anne Boleyn was later accused of adultery and treason She was beheaded in the Tower of London in 1536 Henry’s third wife gave birth to a son, Edward
Jane Seymour Third wife of Henry VIII Mother of Edward VI
Edward VI Son of Henry VIII and Jane Seymour
After Henry’s Death All three of Henry’s children eventually ruled Edward VI ruled only six years Mary returned Catholicism to England when she became queen and had many Protestants killed Elizabeth Returned England to Protestantism
Edward VI Crowned in 1547 at nine years old. Died in 1553.
Mary I Portrait by Antonius Mor
Elizabeth I The Rainbow portrait. The rainbow symbolized peace after storms. Ears and eyes on her mantle represent omniscience and discernment
The Virgin Queen The “Sieve Portrait”. The sieve was an ancient symbol of virginity.
Elizabeth Restores Protestantism Elizabeth had the Parliament set up a national church People were required to attend church or pay a fine This was the Church of England or Anglican Church Elizabeth wanted to make the church acceptable to Catholics She adapted the Book of Common Prayer and allowed trappings of the Catholic Church
The Spanish Armada Philip II of Spain planned to attack England Elizabeth had supported Protestant Spaniards against Philip 130 ships, 8,000 sailors, and 19,000 soldiers were set to invade The English navy defeated the Spanish Armada