Luther and the Reformation The Church and the Pope, not kings were the most powerful leaders Most lands were owned by the church and wealth showed by tremendous Cathedrals
Call to Reforms Many humanist during the Renaissance began to criticize that the church and its leaders Girolamo Savonarola called for all priests to burn their possessions
Luther’s Challenge Luther was a German Monk (did not intend to be a revolutionary) In 1517 he took a public stand against indulgences (Tetzal was given authority by Pope) He wrote the 95 Theses
Luther’s Main teachings People could only win salvation with faith. The church taught that works brought salvation The Bible…not the Pope should be the only word followed People are equal so no need to have priests interpreting the bible
The Response Pope Leo X writes letter to Fredrick of Saxony demanding he stop- No (1517) Demanded apology or excommunication (1518) In 1521 he was brought to Worms to face trial…The Emperor declared the Edict of Worms- Declared Luther a heretic and promised anyone that gave him sanctuary
Martin Luther “ I am bound by scripture I am quoted and my conscience is captive to the word of God. I cannot and I will not retract anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwise, here I stand, may god help me. Amen.”
Peasant Revolt Luther was protected by a German Prince Fredrick He formed the Lutheran church based on his teachings He eventually felt that the revolts went to far.
Germany at war German Princes were split on loyalty to Pope The Holy Roman Emperor Charles V failed to force the Protestants back In 1555 the Peace of Augsburg was signed
Protestant England Henry the VIII King of England was a Catholic, but could not have an male heir with Catherine of Aragon. Asked for an annulment The Pope declined so as not to offend her nephew Charles V
Henry became a protestant and divorced 1534- Act of Supremacy – Church of England Created. King as head of church. He married Ann Boelyn who had a girl…Ann was beheaded 3rd wife-birth complications (Jane Seymore) 4 th beheaded 5 th divorced 6 th outlives him
Henry’s Children 1547-1553 Edward VI crowned at 9. Dies at 15. Moves toward Protestant and renounces Catholic Doctrine 1556- 1558 Mary I reestablished Catholic religion. Persecuted Protestants. “Bloody Mary”
Elizabeth 1558-1603 Became queen Formed the Anglican church Imprisoned and Executed her rival for the throne Mary Queen of Scots 1580’s faced problems against the Spanish and their Armada
Summary Questions 1)Who was the last of Henry the VIII children to rule? 2)Which official measure made the king and not the pope the head of the English church? 3)Who was the wife of a king, the mother of a queen and the Aunt to the Holy Roman Emperor? 4)The term used for a prince that was not loyal to the Pope? 5)What does the term recant mean? 6)Who was the first of Henry VIII children to rule? 7)What official document made it illegal to give Martin Luther sanctuary? 8)What term refers to the paying for the penalty for committing a sin? 9)Who was beheaded partly because of her inability of having a male heir for Henry the VIII? 10)What is the term that means to set aside a marriage as if it never happened?
Extra Credit Film World History Short: Renaissance Students The Other Boleyn Girl (Historical Fiction: Evidence and Interpretation)
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