Presentation on theme: "The Reformation. Reformation The changing of the Christian religion resulting in many different kinds of Christianity Why? Because people thought the."— Presentation transcript:
Reformation The changing of the Christian religion resulting in many different kinds of Christianity Why? Because people thought the Catholic Church was corrupt
Problems with the Catholic Church Popes are in it for the money and power, not to serve God People are angry that they have to pay taxes to the church Local priests are not educated. They arent good teachers and don’t follow the rules
INDULGENCES What’s an indulgence? Priests were telling people they could get into heavan if they paid.
Martin Luther in 1517 A German Priest Luther nails list of complaints about corruption / statements – called the 95 theses – to door of castle church in Wittenberg--Germany
Luther’s Ideas Faith alone, not faith and good works to win salvation Bible alone (not priests) tells the truth All people with faith were equal; pope / church not necessary to interpret bible for them
Luther’s Ideas Spread Invention of Printing Press is very important Helped Luther print his complaints and distribute them
Pope’s response? Pope Leo X in 1520 – threatens to excommunicate (kick him out of the church) Luther if he does not recant (take it back)
Luther responds to the Pope Luther and his students at Wittenberg – gather around a fire and burn pope’s decree Leo excommunicated Luther
Emperor Charles V Holy Roman Emperor; his empire included Germany Opposed Luther’s teachings Summons him to Worms Issues Edict of Worms
Luther is summoned to Worms (a city in Germany) Pope demands that Luther recant He refuses: “I am bound by the Scriptures I have quoted and my conscience is captive to the Word of God. I cannot and I will not retract anything, since it is neither safe nor right to go against conscience. I cannot do otherwise, here I stand, may God help me. Amen”
Edict of Worms Edict: a statement made by the Emperor This one makes it illegal to give Luther food or shelter; all his books are to be burned
After the Edict of Worms Prince Frederick the Wise of Saxony (a part of Germany) shelters him Protects Luther Disobeys pope WHY WOULD HE DO THAT?
Luther in Hiding Luther translates the Bible into German while he is hiding at Prince Frederick’s castle WHY IS THAT SO IMPORTANT?
Peasants’ Revolts Demand end to serfdom Their violence horrifies Luther German princes brutally crush revolt Massacred as many as 100,000
Protestants 1529 –Some German princes and the pope to agree to oppose Luther “Protestants” were German princes who supported Luther and signed a protest against that agreement
Protestants Now the word means: Anyone who is Christian but not catholic or orthodox
War in Germany Holy Roman Emperor Charles V – wanted his subjects to be Catholic Starts war against Protestant princes of Germany Charles V defeats them but does not bring them into Catholic church
Peace of Augsburg 1555 – religious settlement in which princes agreed that the religion of each German state was to be decided by its ruler of that state
Reformation in England Henry VIII—King of England Married to Catherine of Aragon—Spanish niece of Emperor Charles V They have one child, a daughter---Mary
Reformation In England Henry VIII needs a male heir He wants to divorce Catherine of Aragon and take a younger queen but Church would not allow divorce BUT pope COULD annul marriage if he could find ‘proof’ it was never legal in first place (many excuses found)
In England (cont.) Pope refuses to annul King Henry’s marriage – why? Does not want to offend nephew of Catherine of Aragon – Charles V (The Holy Roman Emperor)
Reformation Parliament 1529 – Henry VIII calls Parliament into session and asks it to pass laws that end pope’s power in England
Henry’s Way Out Henry secretly marries Anne Boleyn Parliament legalizes Henry’s divorce from Catherine
Act of Supremacy 1534 – Parliament passes act that makes English king, not pope the official head of England’s church
King Henry as head of Church of England Closes all English monasteries Increased royal power, enriched Henry’s treasury When Anne Boleyn has a girl (Elizabeth) but no male heir still, he has her imprisoned in Tower of London, beheaded in 1536
Finally an heir - Henry marries 4 more times Eventually – his third wife had a son named Edward
After Henry’s death Edward VI rules for 6 years, Protestants gain power Mary rules; Catholic; Protestants persecuted / killed Elizabeth rules (Anne Boleyn’s daughter) – restores Protestantism
Elizabeth I as head of Anglican Church Allows priests to marry Sermons given in English, not Latin Priests wore rich robes, churches had golden crucifixes Book of Common Prayer – acceptable to Catholics
Spanish Armada When? 1588 What? Philip II – Catholic king of Spain attacks England – Why? Partly because Elizabeth had supported Protestants who rebelled against him Outcome? English defeat the Spanish, triumphant reign of Queen Elizabeth continued
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