2Define:1. active dry yeast—partially dormant yeast contained in flour granules.2. bleached flour—flour chemically treated to neutralize yellow pigment.3. brown sugar—granulated sugar coated with molasses, which adds moisture and caramel flavor.
34. compressed yeast—combination of yeast and starch; moist and comes in small, individually wrapped cakes.5. confectioners’ sugar—pulverized, granulated sugar with trace of added cornstarch; also known as powdered sugar.
46. gluten—elastic substance formed when certain proteins in wheat flour combine with liquid. 7. granulated sugar—highly refined sucrose crystals derived by boiling juice of sugarcane or sugar beets.
58. hot spot—area of concentrated heat in oven; can cause uneven baking and browning. 9. leavening agent—triggers chemical reaction that makes baked product rise.
610. preheat—to turn oven on early to have desired temperature when food is placed inside. 11. proofing—process for testing whether yeast is alive.
712. quick-rising yeast—yeast that causes bread to rise in about half the time as regular yeast. 13. self-rising flour—flour with added baking powder and salt.
814. unbleached flour—flour not chemically treated to neutralize yellow pigment; has slight beige tone.
9Answer the following question: 1. How is wheat made into flour?Flour is generally made by milling wheat kernels after the bran and germ are removed.
102. Describe the action of gluten during mixing and baking. Gluten develops as flour is mixed with liquid and forms strong, elastic strands that crisscross in a springy mesh, or weave, of tiny cells. The cells trap air or gas in the baked product. As the product bakes, cells expand with heated air or gas. Eventually the heat set the proteins and starch into the framework that becomes the food’s final shape.
113. What effect does mixing time have on gluten? The longer the mixing time, the stronger the glute.
124. Compare hard, soft, and durum wheat. Flour used in baking is milled from two basic varieties or wheat. High-protein, hard wheat forms very strong gluten. Commercial bakers prefer it for making bread. Since soft wheat is lower in protein, it forms weak gluten. It’s ideal when a tender, delicate texture is desired.
13A third kind of wheat, forum is the hardest type grown—too hard for making baked products. Durum is milled into semolina, a grainy flour that gives pasta its sturdy structure. The main quality that distinguishes the different flours used in baking is protein content, which affects gluten strength.
145. How do bleached and unbleached flours differ? Bleached flour: Chemically treated to neutralize yellow pigment.Unbleached flour: adds a slight beige tone to baked goods.
156. Why do recipes with whole-wheat flour often contain all-purpose flour too? Whole-grain flour includes the germ and the bran. The bran limits gluten formation so the products are more dense and heavier than those made with all-purpose flour. Recipes using whole-wheat flour typically include an equal or greater amount of all-purpose flour so the product will be lighter and less dense.
167. Describe the kinds of flour used to make these flours: All-purpose flour—blended from hard and soft wheat.Bread flour—blended from hard-wheat and barley flour.Cake and pastry flour—from soft wheat.Gluten flour—hard wheat with protein solids added and most starch removed.
178. Describe the ratio of liquid to flour in pour batters, drop batters, soft doughs, and stiff doughsPour batters: nearly equal amounts of liquid and flour.Drop batters: twice as much flour as liquid.
18Soft doughs: one part liquid to three parts flour. Stiff doughs: one part liquid to six to eight parts flour.
199. Why do baked goods need a leavening agent? To trigger a chemical reaction that makes the product rise.
2010. How do air and steam leaven products? Air: Beating adds air to a mixture and the air expands when heated.Steam: As liquid heats, steam forms and expands.
2111. Why is baking soda mixed with dry ingredients before adding it to liquids in a recipe? Because it mixes with acid liquids instantly.
2212. Compare active dry, quick-rising, and compressed yeast (Yeast is a fungus that thrives on moisture and warmth. It feeds on the simple sugars in flour and sweeteners. As it grows, yeast gives off carbon dioxide, while other by-products lend a distinctive flavor and aroma. It is purchased in packets or jars as active dry yeast.)
23Active dry: Partially dormant yeast is contained in flour granules. Quick-rising: Works in about the half the time as regular.Compressed yeast: A combination of yeast and starch; is moist and comes in small, individually wrapped cakes that are very perishable.
2413. What roles do fats play in baking? They add richness and flavor to baked goods and make brown crusts and tender textures possible and add volume by trapping air.
2514. Can you substitute oil for margarine in a baking recipe? Explain. No, because solid fats and oils work differently in baking.
2615. What contributions do granulated sugar, confectioners’ sugars, and brown sugar make when baking? Granulated sugar: Highly refined sucrose crystals derived by boiling the juice of sugarcane or sugar beets. When creamed with a solid fat, it adds air and volume.Confectioners’ sugars: Powdered sugar; pulverized granulated sugar with a trace or added cornstarch. It dissolves easily and is most often used for frostings.
27Brown sugar: Granulated sugar coated with molasses Brown sugar: Granulated sugar coated with molasses. Molasses adds moisture and a caramel flavor but reduces the ability to trap air. Alight or dark color reflects the amount of molasses and intensity of flavor.
2816. How should flour, leavening agents, fats, and sugar be stored? Flour: cool, dry place; open bags transferred to tightly covered containers; refrigerate opened packages of whole-grain flour.Leavening agents: cool, dry place; baking powder tightly sealed; compressed yeast refrigerated;
29Fats: vegetable shortening in cool, dry place and refrigerated after a month; butter and margarine well wrapped and refrigerated for up to two months or can freeze;Sugar: tightly sealed in cool, dry area.
3017. What is the role of eggs in baked goods? Eggs are a “multitasker” in baked goods. Fats in eggs add flavor, color, richness, and tenderness. Certain fats create an emulsion, binding liquids and fats in the recipe to keep batters from separating. Beating egg white proteins adds air and volume. Heating them helps set the structure.
3118. What happens to biscuits when the oven temperature is not accurate? If the oven is too hot, the crust forms too quickly and the biscuit cannot rise or fully bake; if the temperature is too low, it rises too much and may collapse.
3219. Why is pan size important? Recipes are developed for certain pans. A pan that’s too deep or shallow may cause the same problems as a temperature that’s too high or low.
3320. How can you avoid creating a hot spot when baking? By placing baking pans to allow air to circulate around them.
3421. Why are microwaved products different from conventionally baked products? Since microwave ovens cook with moist heat, products do not brown or develop a crust. Less evaporation occurs so products say tender and moist.
3522. A cook wrapped a loaf of banana bread in aluminum foil after removing it from the pan. Explain whether you would have done this.Students should conclude that doing so will prevent the bread from properly cooling; trapping heat against the bread will promote spoilage.