2To bake... …to cook in dry heat in an oven. The oven heats the air and the hot air cooks the food.Do not overcrowd an oven when baking, as it interferes with the circulation of hot air.Science principle: No lid is used during baking. A lid would trap the moisture as it was trying to evaporate. The evaporating moisture would then collect on the inside of the lid during condensation, and fall back into the food. That is moist heat…and is NOT baking.
3+ Baking Ingredients... liquid flour structure The flour and liquid form the shape of the product. The flour and the eggs are known as the ‘strengtheners’.
5Types of flour...Flour is usually purchased pre-sifted, bleached or unbleached. Bleaching whitens the flour.
6Types of flour...Gluten is the protein found in flour mixed with liquid. The more a dough is mixed, worked, or kneaded, the longer the strands of gluten become, and the more ‘elastic’ the dough becomes. When baked, elasticity provides a firm structure and light texture.Cake flour: very low gluten content; pure white colorPastry flour: very low gluten content; creamy white color; slightly less delicate than cake flourLower gluten flours have just enough gluten to keep products from crumbling, but not enough to create chewiness.
7Types of flour...Bread flour: highest gluten content; creamy white colorAll purpose flour: medium gluten content; medium white color; good for general production workGluten-free flour: People who have a gluten sensitivity or Celiac Disease cannot tolerate certain levels of gluten. If you simply take gluten out of your baking, you're likely to have disappointing results. Gluten is sticky stuff which helps prevent your baked goodies from crumbling. It also traps pockets of air, improving the texture of your bread, cakes or biscuits. Gluten-free flour may need to be mixed with guar or xantham gums or cornstarch, etc. to restore stickiness.
8Liquids Used...The liquid used in baking provides moisture and allows the gluten to develop.Milk or water are the most common liquids. Others are buttermilk, cream, molasses, honey, melted fats or oils, and juices.Adding too much liquid creates a soggy product. Adding too little liquid creates a dry product.
9Leavening agents… Leavening – helps cookies to rise and adds structure Cause the food to "rise”… by providing air, steam, or gas.Leavening – helps cookies to rise and adds structureBaking soda – (bicarbonate of soda) – must be mixed with an acid (lemon juice, buttermilk, molasses) ingredient to release its CO2 which makes the baked goods rise.Baking powder – includes baking soda and an acid plus a moisture absorber. Not interchangeable with baking soda.Leavener should be fresh and not out of date.
10The ‘creaming method’ adds air as fat and sugar are creamed together. Baking Ingredients...leavening agents cause the food to "rise"Air is a physical method of causing food to ‘rise’. It can be used in two different methods:The ‘creaming method’ adds air as fat and sugar are creamed together.The ‘foaming method’ adds air as beaten egg whites are folded into a batter.
11Cooking oils; do not substitute oils for solid fats Baking Ingredients...fats add richness, flavor, and tendernessAdding too much fat creates a crumbly product; adding too little creates a tough or chewy product. ‘Just enough’ creates a ‘melt-in-your-mouth’ product.Butter or margarine; do NOT use soft margarines for baking, as they contain added waterSolid shorteningCooking oils; do not substitute oils for solid fats
13Baking Ingredients... eggs 4. THICKENER 1. FLAVOR 8. LEAVENING AGENT 5. BINDER2. TENDERIZER6. ENRICH7. PRESERVE TEXTURE3. COLOR2 eggs whites can be substituted for 1 whole egg to reduce fat and calories.
14Baking Ingredients... sweeteners for flavor Molasses (a by-product of beet or cane sugar production.)Brown sugar must be packed into the measuring cup. It is an unrefined sugar with a high moisture content OR white sugar with molasses added. The amount of molasses determines whether it is dark or light brown sugar. Either can be used in most recipes.HoneyGranulated sugar is the most common sweetener in baking. It is either cane or beet sugar.Powdered sugar is also called confectioners sugar.
16Use an electric mixer to save time! Use medium speed on your mixer. Standard baking procedure...Most of the time, you wouldn’t even need a recipe to follow. For most cakes and cookies, just follow standard baking procedure using the 5 step ‘creaming method”:1. "cream" together the fats and sugarsCreaming- refers to combining shortening and sugar.Use an electric mixer to save time! Use medium speed on your mixer.2. add eggs one at a time, beating after eachAir + egg whites = volume
17Add 1/3 dry, then 1/3 wet…repeat ‘til all ingredients are used Standard baking procedure...3. sift together the dry ingredientsSifting eliminates lumps, helps in the even distribution of ingredients, and adds air4. "add alternately" the dry and liquid ingredientsAdd 1/3 dry, then 1/3 wet…repeat ‘til all ingredients are used5. stir in flavoring pieces by handAn electric mixer at this point would break up the chips, raisins, nuts, etc.
20Before baking...Space cookies on the cookie sheet for baking, leaving enough space so they won’t touch.Preheating the oven to the correct temperature is critical! Adjust oven racks so you can bake in the middle of the oven! If rack is too low, food gets too brown on the bottom; if rack is too high, food gets too brown on top.
21There are 6 different categories of cookies: Types of cookies...Drop cookies such as chocolate chip and oatmeal, are made from a soft dough dropped from a spoon2. Pressed or Piped cookies , such as ladyfingers or macaroons, are piped through a pastry bag3. Rolled cookies, such as sugar cookies, are rolled out and cut in shapes
22There are 6 different categories of cookies: Types of cookies...Molded cookies are molded by hand into shapes, such as peanut butter cookies marked with fork tinesRefrigerator cookies are made when dough is rolled in logs and chilled; then sliced and bakedBar or sheet cookies are made in long bars or fill sheet pans, and then are cut into bar shapes after baking
23After baking...Cookies are removed from the oven, cooled for a couple of minutes, removed from the pans with a spatula, and placed on a wire rack for cooling.