Presentation on theme: "Fluency Instruction Lynda Berger Chapter 10. Introduction Fluency instruction is an important part of every reading program because practice with connected."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction Fluency instruction is an important part of every reading program because practice with connected text at the appropriate level develops fluent readers. The three elements of fluent reading are accuracy, rate, and prosody. This chapter focuses primarily on fluency instruction in connected text. Other aspects of fluency instruction are addressed in other sections of the Sourcebook.
WHAT? METHODS FOR BUILDING FLUENCY Ample opportunity should be available for independent silent reading for all students, taking care to ensure that they are actually reading. Multiple methods of assisted reading emphasize extensive modeling and practice. Teacher assisted reading provides a model of expressiveness while students see and hear words being read. Partnering more and less-fluent readers to read aloud to each other provides a socially supportive context and motivation. Students following along in books during audio-assisted reading can increase fluency and comprehension as much as with a teacher using the same materials.
WHAT? Repeated Oral Reading Repeated and monitored reading of the same text improves fluency. Students can read a specified number of times, until a certain level of fluency is reached, in varied groupings, or with different purposes. A chart for matching methods of instruction to diagnosed weaknesses is found on page 365.
WHAT? Fluency-Oriented Reading Instruction (FORI) This three-part program includes repeated reading of a selection from a core reading program, independent silent reading at school, and reading at home. Criteria for selecting texts are genre, content, and level of difficulty. Methods for determining levels of text difficulty, pairing text with instructional methods, and levels of learners are included in a chart on page 368.
WHY? “ One of the most compelling reasons to focus instructional efforts on students becoming fluent readers is the strong correlation between reading fluency and reading comprehension. (Allington1983; Johns 1993; Samuels 1988).
WHEN? Grades k-2 should hear fluent and expressive reading of text daily. Grade 1 should include participation by students in guided oral readings of familiar texts repeatedly. Grade 2 should add in daily repetition of text read aloud with corrective feedback. Grades 3-5 still need practice reading aloud with corrective feedback. Beyond grade 6 most students will not increase substantially in fluency rates and accuracy but still need to practice reading in a wide range of texts. Assessments will show areas of weakness and instruction should be tailored to address these weaknesses.
HOW? Model one- Timed Repeated Oral Reading This model is designed to build oral reading fluency, uses text at a struggling student’s instructional level, rather than grade level, and is best done with an adult. Choose instructional level text of 100 – 250 words. Set and graph goals for both text difficulty and rate (form on page 791). Model and preview first timed reading text. Time for one minute and calculate words correct per minute. Provide corrective feedback in accuracy and prosody. Involve student in calculating their score, marking it on the graph, and planning goals. The next day, allow the student to preview the text, review the goal, then do another one- minute timing, calculate and graph the score, and compare to the goal. Discuss additional things the student can to become better at reading this text. Repeat this pattern until goal is reached regardless of how few or many times it takes. Celebrate! Then move on.
HOW? Model two – Partner Reading This motivational technique is designed for students needing more support than reading alone, but not as much as directly working with a teacher or tutor. Assess oral reading fluency (ORF) using grade-level passage, rank students in order. Divide list in half, assign each top ranked-student with a lower one, plan seating, and select text based on lower score of pair. Directly teach what fluency is and model how to work with partner. Provide explicit instruction and model how to identify and correct mistakes when they practice fluency. These are the types of mistakes they need to be able to recognize and help correct: saying the wrong word, getting stuck on a word for more than four seconds, skipping a word, and adding extra words. During practice readings, usually the stronger reader goes first and provides a model for the other partner. In shorter passages, they trade off every paragraph. For longer passages you may want to designate a specific number of minutes for switching roles. Monitor, correct, and praise.
HOW? Model three – Phrase-Cued Reading This model is to help readers become proficient in appropriate phrasing. Research has shown that marking phrase boundaries also promoted reading comprehension in first – through third-graders. Introduce phrasing by using awkward phrasing as a model, then phrasing the selection correctly to demonstrate how text is more meaningful when read in separate chunks. Select 100 – 250 word text appropriate to students’ appropriate reading levels. Mark text with a slash (/) for short pauses within sentences, and the end of sentences with a double slash (//). Day 1- Pass out copies of the text and preview it. Explain the marks and then model read using pauses, intonation and expression, then choral read with the whole group. Day 2- The teacher model reads the text as students follow along silently. Next, choral-read with the class and discuss. Have the class choral-read the selection, and discuss. Finally, have students partner-read. Day 3- Students read chorally the marked text, followed by partner-reading or individual tape- recording. Day 4- Using unmarked copies of the text, teacher and students read the text together. Next, the students choral-read the unmarked text. Discuss. Read again with a tape-recorder or to a partner. Day 5- Meet individually with students and listen carefully to their reading. Then, assess using the Prosody Assessment Rating Scale on page 397. (An assessment form you can copy and use for this is on page 787.)
How? Model four- Readers Theatre Readers Theatre is a “rehearsed group presentation of a script that is read aloud rather than memorized” (Flynn). There is limited research-based evidence on the effectiveness of readers theatre itself. However, with enough opportunities for rereading, there is strong evidence of its effectiveness. It provides authentic reason and motivation for reading. Choose a script that is at about the independent reading level of the group, and in which they can read at least 95 percent of the words accurately. (A sample script is give on pages 775 – 778.) Day 1- Teach what readers theatre is. Preview the text, read aloud and model as students follow along. Discuss story elements. Model prosody and punctuation. Pair students to practice by reading every other line, then switching parts. Circulate and offer assistance as needed. Day 2- Students follow along as they listen to an audio recording of the script several times, carefully observing phrasing and expression. Assign parts and mark scripts with a yellow highlighter. Model reading a part while the rest whisper read, then have the group read the entire script in this manner as you monitor and assist. Day 3- Assign a specific amount of time for students to practice parts individually. Mark boundaries on their scripts if needed. Have the whole group practice aloud as you provide positive and corrective feedback. Assign additional practice for homework. Day 4- Rehears the script without interruption. Afterwards, provide support and corrective feedback as needed. Have individuals practice their parts with an appropriate level of support. Assign reading their parts to family members as homework. Day 5- Perform before an audience. No costumes or props are needed.