Presentation on theme: "What is fluency? Speed + Accuracy = Fluency Reading quickly and in a meaningful way (prosody) Decoding and comprehending simultaneously Freedom."— Presentation transcript:
What is fluency? Speed + Accuracy = Fluency Reading quickly and in a meaningful way (prosody) Decoding and comprehending simultaneously Freedom from word identification problems Fluency is derived from the Latin word fluens which means “to flow” Smooth and effortless reading
Fluent readers…. Recognize words automatically Read aloud effortlessly and with expression Do not have to concentrate on decoding Can focus on comprehension
The fluent reader sounds good, is easy to listen to, and reads with enough expression to help the listener understand and enjoy the material
Indicators of Fluency Words per minute Reading with expression Recall/Retelling
Factors that limit fluency… Unfamiliarity with text Limited vocabulary Difficulty with syntax Decoding breakdown
Assessing Fluency Select a grade-level passage Student reads for one minute Compute the number of words read in one minute Count the number of errors Subtract the number of errors from the number of words read
How to Build Reading Fluency Daily practice Timed repeated readings Set goals Graph fluency progress
Bridge to Comprehension Fluency forms the bridge between word recognition and comprehension Identifying Words Constructing Meaning FLUENCY
Fluency Instructional Strategies 1. Explicit Explanation 2. Demonstration Modeling 3. Guided Practice 4. Supported and/or Recorded Practice 5. Performance
Explicit Explanation Fluent Readers: Read what is on the page accurately most of the time. Vary the speed of their reading according to their purpose and the difficulty of the text. Make oral reading interesting by reading with expression, phrasing, and smoothness. Retell what they read remembering important ideas. Define explicitly the “characteristics” of fluent reading for students.
Demonstration/Modeling Through read-alouds teachers should show the differences between: Accurate Reading vs. Inaccurate Reading Appropriate Speed vs. Inappropriate Speeds Smoothness vs. Hesitating, Halting Expressive vs. Monotone Appropriate Phrasing vs. Word-by- Word
Guided Practice Choral Reading Unison Echo Line-by-line Repeated Readings Have children read from the same text. Have them start reading orally. After 3 minutes, say “Stop.” Have them mark last word they read. Repeat Children should read further down the page with each repeated reading.
Supported and/or Recorded Practice Paired Reading Cassette Recording Read along with the CD
Performance Reader’s Theater Radio Reading Read Arounds