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Fluency This publication is based on the First and Second Grade Teacher Reading Academies, ©2002 University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency,

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Presentation on theme: "Fluency This publication is based on the First and Second Grade Teacher Reading Academies, ©2002 University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Fluency This publication is based on the First and Second Grade Teacher Reading Academies, ©2002 University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency, which has been reprinted and modified with their permission.

2 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Accuracy Automaticity Fluency Grade-level texts Independent level Frustration level Survey of Knowledge Instructional level Prosody Rate Reading level WRC

3 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Fluency Fluency: reading quickly, accurately, and with expression combines rate and accuracy requires automaticity includes reading with prosody

4 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Effective Reading Instruction Fluency is vital to comprehension. Fluency is a critical bridge and has a domino-like effect on the development of reading skills.

5 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Kentucky State Standards Kentucky Program of Studies How is fluency addressed?

6 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Proficient Readers Proficient readers recognize the vast majority of words in text quickly, allowing them to focus on the meaning of the text. Since approximately 300 words account for 65% of words in texts, rapid recognition of these words during the primary grades form the foundation of fluent reading.

7 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Fluency Instruction Fluency instruction begins when students can read connected text with 90% or better accuracy (usually by the middle of first grade).

8 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Measuring Students’ Fluency One-Minute Reading Example: If a student reads 53 words and has 7 errors, the student reads 46 words correct per minute. Always encourage students to do their best reading. Total Number of Words Read - Number of Errors Words Read Correctly Per Minute (WRC)

9 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Setting Fluency Goals Establishing baseline fluency scores helps determine students’ fluency goals. Recommended weekly improvement = 1.5 to 2.0 WRC Given that Michael reads at 42 WRC and there are 33 weeks remaining: Determine the number of words Michael needs to improve each week to reach an end-of-year goal of 91WRC Set a goal for Michael to reach by the middle of the year

10 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Procedures for Assessing Fluency Having students read three unfamiliar, instructional-level passages and recording and graphing the median words read correctly (WRC) is more reliable than using a fluency score based on one passage.

11 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Practice

12 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency 3 rd Year Primary Snapshot: Michael Hi! I’m Little Bill. This is a story about a boat that 12 I made all by myself. I named it The Moby Dick.23 One Saturday morning, I woke up and saw that it was 34 bright and sunny outside. Hurray! I could go with 43 my brother to the park and sail my new boat. 53

13 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency 3 rd year Primary Snapshot: Michael Hi! I’m Little Bill. This is a story about a boat that 12 I made all by myself. I named it The Moby Dick.23 One Saturday morning, I woke up and saw that it was 34 bright and sunny outside. Hurray! I could go with43 my brother to the park and sail my new boat. 53

14 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency By the End of Primary Fluency refers to the ability to identify words rapidly so that attention is directed to the meaning of the text. About 90% of 3 rd grade level text is made up of 5,000 words. Fluency is highly correlated to reading comprehension. The correlation is.82.

15 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency High Frequency Words and Fluency Accomplishments: P1-KRecognize some very common sight words P2-1Reads aloud with accuracy Recognizes common, irregularly spelled sight words P3-2Reads and comprehends grade level fiction & non-fiction P4-3Reads and comprehends grade level fiction & non-fiction

16 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Students’ Fluency Progression How do we know that students are progressing as fluent readers? How do we measure students’ fluency rates? What norms have been established to gauge student progress towards mastery?

17 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency A Closer Look at Reading Levels To determine a student’s reading level for a specific text, calculate: Correct number of words read ÷ Total number of words read = Ex: 48 ÷ 50 = (.96) 96% (Independent level) Percent accuracy

18 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency What We Know from Research Repeated and monitored oral reading improves fluency Repeated reading can benefit most students throughout elementary school, as well as struggling readers at higher grade levels

19 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Repeated Reading Partner Reading Computer-Based/ Tape-Assisted Reading Pair students to practice rereading text Students listen, read along, or record their own reading, point to text, sub-vocalize words, and reread texts independently Small groups rehearse and read a play Readers Theatre

20 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Partner Reading involves pairing students to practice rereading text increases the amount of time students are reading and provides a model of fluent reading

21 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency An Example of Partner Reading Pair up Select one of the narrative children’s books you brought to the academy Decide who will be Partner A and who will be Partner B—Partner A will read first —Partner A: Ask Partner B the “after-reading comprehension questions” —Use at least two of the highlighted prompts from the handout “Providing Instructional Feedback”

22 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Repeated-Reading Practices Model the proper phrasing and speed of fluent reading Involves small groups of students rehearsing and reading a play Computer-Based/Tape-Assisted Reading Readers Theatre

23 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency More Fluency-Building Practices actively involves students as they read in unison Choral reading Chunking Model Technology Repeated Readings Home Reading involves reading phrases, clauses, and sentences by parsing, or dividing text into chunks Orally read passage, then have student participate in echo reading or reread passages. Use tape-assisted reading simultaneously with reading aloud Practice reading phrases that include high frequency words or words targeted as sight vocabulary. (Mercer, 2002) Provide reading practice with familiar texts through nightly reading plans. (CIERA, 1998)

24 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Consider Diversity: Limited English Proficient Students Listening to models Repeated readings Choral reading Partner reading Fluency practice for Limited English Proficient students involves:

25 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Repeated reading practice, especially in expository or informational texts More time on task Paired reading and rereading Additional feedback and progress monitoring Students with disabilities usually benefit from: Students with Special Needs

26 Kentucky Reading First Summer Institute 2004: Fluency Develop instant, efficient word recognition (automaticity) Practice repeated reading of texts Receive feedback and guidance from others Remember... Fluency is increased when students:


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