Presentation on theme: "With Phyllis Ferguson www.save-the-teacher.com. RDA/TLS/EAC/MBM/4-032 What is Fluency? Fluency is the ability to read most words in context quickly and."— Presentation transcript:
with Phyllis Ferguson www.save-the-teacher.com
RDA/TLS/EAC/MBM/4-032 What is Fluency? Fluency is the ability to read most words in context quickly and accurately. Fluent readers recognize words automatically when reading silently and aloud. Fluent readers read with expression when reading aloud.
Elements of Fluency Automatic Accurate Quick Expressive Meaningful
Why Assess Fluency? Bridge between recognition and comprehension Highly correlated with comprehension More focus on meaning when fluent Is a reflection of decoding, strategies, comprehension and self monitoring
Things to Note Intonation, phrasing, inflection, expression What strategies are missing that are influencing fluency Is inattention to punctuation a factor Is the type of literature a factor Is the child reading with meaning Does he/she know they should be reading for meaning Are miscues affecting meaning How quickly self-correction occurs
What to Use Qualitative Analysis—BRI, Running Record Accuracy and automaticity CBM/ORF Oral Reading Fluency assessment 1 minute timing Instructional level text Repeat with other texts Mean score Accuracy score %= wcr / wr Rate = wcpm
Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Target Rate Norms Grade Fall (WCPM) Winter (WCPM) Spring (WCPM) 12341234 30-60 50-90 70-110 10-30 50-80 70-100 80-120 30-60 70-100 80-110 100-140 56785678 80-120 100-140 110-150 120-160 100-140 110-150 120-160 130-170 110-15- 120-160 130-170 140-180 Source: Adapted from “AIMSweb: Charting the Path to Literacy,” 2003, Edformation, Inc. Available at www.aimsweb.com/norms/reading_fluency.htm. Data are also adapted from “Curriculum-Based Oral Reading Fluency Norms for Students in Grades 2 Through 5,” by J. E. Hasbrouck and G. Tindal, 1992, Teaching Exceptional Children, 24, pp. 41-44.www.aimsweb.com/norms/reading_fluency.htm
Assessing Expressive Reading Appropriate expression and phrasing Stress, pitch variations, intonation, rate, phrasing, pausing Shows that the reader is making sense of the text Qualitative Rubric Reads grade level passage/ as little as 60 seconds Scores with rubric Multidimensional Fluency Scale Use the following scales to rate reader fluency on he dimensions of expression and volume, phrasing, smoothness, and pace. Scores range from 4 to 16. Generally, scores below 8 indicate that fluency may be a concern. Scores of 8 or above indicate that the student is making good progress in fluency. Source: Adapted from “Training Teachers to Attend to Their Students’ Oral Reading Fluency,” by J. Zutell and T. V. Rasinski, 1991, Theory Into Practice, 30, pp. 211-217.
Oral Fluency Rubric 4 Reads primarily in larger, meaningful phrase groups 3 Reads primarily in three- and four-word phrase groups 2 Reads primarily in two-word phrase groups with some three- and four- word groupings. 1 Reads primarily word-by-word
How to Develop Expressiveness Modeling Coaching and formative feedback Involvement in Readers Theater or Choral reading Practice, practice, practice in contexts that are: Meaningful Purposeful Engaging
Multidimensional Fluency Scale Expression and Volume Phrasing Smoothness Pace
How Does Fluency Assessment Fit? Quick and Easy to administer Easy to understand Reflect the components of Fluency Automaticity Accuracy Quick- Rate Expression Makes Meaning
RDA/TLS/EAC/MBM/4-0318 Fluency Fluency is the ability to read most words in context quickly and accurately. Fluent readers recognize words automatically when reading silently. Fluent readers read with expression when reading aloud.
RDA/TLS/EAC/MBM/4-0319 How is Fluency developed? Fluency is best developed through modeling during teacher read alouds and students reading and re-reading of instructional level and independent level materials.
How to Increase Rate and Accuracy Repeated Readings Instruction for accuracy Sight vocabulary Phonics Word Analysis Warning: Don’t give students the idea that being fast is being a good reader Rate must be coupled with comprehension
RDA/TLS/EAC/MBM/4-0321 How is fluency developed continued: Data suggests that independent silent reading is not an effective practice when used as the only type of reading instruction to develop fluency and other reading skills, particularly with students who have not yet developed critical alphabetic and word reading skills.
9 Steps to Building Fluency 1.Develop orthographic/phonological foundations (phonemic awareness, letter knowledge, phonics). 2.Increase vocabulary and oral language skills. 3.Effectively teach high-frequency vocabulary and provide adequate practice. 4.Teach common word-parts and spelling patterns. (Pikulski, J.J., & Chard, D.J. (2005). Fluency: Bridge between decoding and reading comprehension. The Reading Teacher, 58 (6), 510-519.
9 Steps to Building Fluency (2) 5.Effectively teach decoding skills and provide adequate practice. 6.Provide students with appropriate texts to assist in building fluent reading. 7.Use guided oral repeated reading strategies for struggling readers. 8.Support, guide and encourage wide-reading. 9.Implement appropriate screening and progress monitoring assessments. (Pikulski & Chard, 2005)
RDA/TLS/EAC/MBM/4-0325 How is Fluency supported through Balanced Literacy? Read Aloud Provides a teacher model of fluent and expressive reading Shared Reading Students develop fluency and phrasing through repeated readings of shared text.
Familiar Reading –Students read at their independent levels –Students choose books from a variety of texts –Teacher assesses two or three students for accuracy level. –Teacher conducts one-minute timed rereading of fluency passages. –Students practice reading high frequency phrases for fluency. –Student monitors buddy rereading and graphs fluency rate.
Independent Reading –Rereading for the purpose of building fluency –Repeated practice with instructional level word study tasks –Independent practice to build automaticity with previous learning Encourages student choice Increases motivation Involves practicing reading strategies Maximizes reading competence Habituates monitoring and record keeping
Phonics/Spelling –Instruction promotes automaticity. –Teacher uses connected text to provide explicit instruction in fluency. –Teacher provides initial practice in controlled, connected text in which students can practice their newly learned skills successfully. –“Quick Write” –Dictation Because fluent readers do not have to concentrate on decoding the words, they can focus their attention on what text means.
Speed Drills Letters Colors Consonant sounds Sight words—irregular words Word families (such as the –am, - at, -ame, -ate lists. Change the ending consonant (e.g., man, mat, map, mad). Phrase cards One minute timing – Self Monitor—set new goal
Chunking and Phrasing Hook, 2001
In Guided Reading –In Book Selection? Fluency develops as a result of many opportunities to practice reading with a high degree of success. –During the introduction ? An overview provides context for the story Meaning is built the moment the reader picks up the text and anticipates reading it so that the reader draws continually on meaningful information, synthesizes and organizes it, and responds to what she understands.
–During the first reading? Guidance and feedback are critical to fluent reading. –After Reading? Teaching points, based on observed needs, provide an opportunity for explicit instruction. –Through the extension? Repeated rereading promotes fluency –Choral reading –Reader’s theatre –Familiar Reading box