2Fluency Instruction What is fluency? The ability to read a text quickly and accurately with expression and sound natural, as if speaking.
3Why is fluency important? Bridges the gap between word recognition and comprehensionReading focus is on what the text means rather than decodingThe reader is able to make connections among the ideas in the textThe reader is able to make connections between the text and background knowledgeAllows for simultaneous word recognition and comprehension
4Recent Research by National Assessment for Educational Progress (NAEP) 44% of a representative sample of fourth graders were low in fluencystudents scoring lower in fluency also scored lower in comprehension.
5Fluent readers are able to focus attention on comprehension by: making connections among text ideasassimilating the text ideas with their background knowledgeRecognizing words automaticallyGrouping words quickly to help understand the text
6Less Fluent Readers: Read slowly, word by word Are choppy and plodding oral readersMust focus attention on decoding individual wordsAfter decoding, have little attention left for comprehension of text
7Fluency Development Continued Oral reading may still be expressionless, not fluent, due to automaticity emphasis onlyFluent readers must know how to pause appropriately and when to change emphasis and tone by breaking the text into meaningful chunks of phrases and clauses.It is important to provide students with fluency instruction and practice while reading connected text.The important component of reading with expression is essential to fluency.
8Degree of Fluency Depends on: What is being readFamiliarity with vocabularyAmount of practice with the textEven skilled readers may not read fluently when faced with unfamiliar technical words or topics
9What does research say about fluency? Two major instructional approaches investigated……Repeated and Monitored Oral Reading (Repeated Reading)Independent Silent Reading
10Repeated and Monitored Oral Reading (Repeated Reading) Substantially improves word recognition, speed, and accuracy, as well as fluency.Improves reading comprehension to a lesser but still considerable extentImproves overall reading ability of all elementary school studentsEffective techniques related to this approach include:Students read and reread text until a certain level of fluency is attained (usually four times is enough)Use of audiotapes with books, tutors, peer guidance, etc.
11How does fluency develop? Early readers have slow, labored, oral reading because they are just learning to decode.Fluency develops gradually over time with ample opportunity for practice.Automaticity is fast, effortless word recognition and is necessary, but not sufficient for fluency.Automaticity of word recognition in isolation does not necessarily transfer to reading connected text.
12Independent Silent Reading One major difference between good and poor readers is the amount of time spent reading—independent silent reading increases the time spent reading.Independent silent reading requires guidance and feedback.Research has not confirmed or disproved the benefits of independent silent reading without guidance and feedback.
13How can we encourage students’ fluency? Model fluent readingStudents learn how oral reading can help make sense of written textRead aloud effortlessly and with expression daily for your students so they know how a fluent reader sounds.In primary grades read aloud from a big bookPoint to each word as you read to show how and where to pause and when to raise and lower your voice.
14Have adults or other family members read aloud to students. The more models of fluent reading the children hear, the better.Also increases children’s knowledge of the world, vocabulary, familiarity with written language, and reading interest.
15Have students repeatedly reread passages aloud with guidance Have students practice the text you modeled firstKnow various repeated reading approachesRereading the text four times is usually sufficient to improve fluencyKnow your students’ reading levels
16Know what your students should be reading (Continued) Students should practice rereading independent level text – a text they can read with 95% accuracy or misread only 1 out of 20 words.Students should not be reading frustration level texts independently, because the focus is on decoding and not comprehension.Students should be reading relatively short texts between words depending on the student’s age.Students should have access to a variety of reading materials-stories, nonfiction, and poetry.
18Student-Adult Reading One-on-one student/adult reading with a teacher, parent, classroom aide, or tutorAdult models text first, then student reads with adult providing help and encouragementStudent rereads until fluent, approximately three to four rereadings
19Students read along as a group with teacher or Choral ReadingStudents read along as a group with teacher orother fluent adult readerStudents have a copy of the same text or a big book can be usedText should be relatively short and at student independent reading levelPatterned or predictable books are useful because repetition invites participationModel fluent reading first then reread it and invite students to join inContinue rereading and encourage students to participateShould be read three to five times (not necessarily on the same day)
20Tape-Assisted Reading Students read along in books as theyhear a fluent reader read the tapea book at child’s independent reading level is neededa tape recording of the book read at about words per minute (with no music or sound effects) is neededStudent reads along with the tape until able to read independently without the tape
21Partner Reading Paired students take turns reading to each other More fluent paired with less fluent reader - similar to student/adult readingSame level readers paired to reread a story already introduced and taught by teacher
22Students rehearse and perform a play for peers or Reader’s TheatreStudents rehearse and perform a play for peers orothersThey read scripts adapted from books rich in dialogueStudents play characters or narratorProvides readers with a legitimate reason to reread text and practice fluencyPromotes cooperative interaction with peersMakes the reading task appealing
23Echo Reading The teacher reads a portion of a text and the students immediately repeat the portion thatthe teacher read.Material can be read in phrases or sentences, and finger pointing can be used.Especially effective with content area textShould be performed frequently, but should last no more than 20 minutesEach learner’s goal should be to replicate the teacher’s performance with precision while reading.
24Pros and Cons of Independent Silent Reading The greatest increase in reading fluency progress happens in direct instruction with the teacher.Most instructional reading time should be used for direct teaching of reading skills and strategies.Struggling readers need direct instruction.Struggling readers are not likely to make efficient and effective use of silent independent reading.Encourage students to read at home.
25Reggie Routman states… “Independent silent reading is an indispensable part of a balanced reading program.”Students take responsibility for their own reading.The importance of silent reading can not be overstated. In a study of fifth graders’ activities outside school, it was found that “time spent reading books was the best predictor of a child’s growth as a reader from the second to the fifth grade.”Reggie Routman “Independent Reading.”Invitations, [Portsmith, NH: Heineman, 1988, pp ]
26Sharen Taberski states… Providing independent reading sessions gives the children opportunity to practice reading and use strategies that the teacher has demonstrated.Independent reading opportunities should include “just right” books – books that support their growthStudents need to know it is their responsibility to make sense of what the author has writtenSharon Taberski “From Where You Are Thinking,” On Solid Ground [Portsmith, NH: Heineman, 2000, Chapter 1, pp. 7]
27Do we need fluency Instruction? Students need fluency instruction when theyare not automatic in word recognition whilereading their textsAutomaticity has not been achieved whenStudents read an unpracticed text with more than 10% word recognition errorsStudents do not read orally with expressionStudents’ oral reading comprehension is poor
28Should fluency be assessed? Formal and informal measures ensure your students aremaking appropriate progressHelps determine effectiveness of instruction and set instructional goalsStudent motivation is increased when fluency growth is graphed and shown to studentsFormal measures include taking timed samples of student’s reading rate and comparing it to published fluency normsInformal measures include listening to children’s oral reading and making a judgment about fluency progress
29Fluency SummaryFluency is quick and accurate reading of text with expression.Fluency frees students to understand what they read.Fluency progress is achieved by modeling fluent reading and having students engage in repeated oral reading.Assessing student progress in fluency helps you to evaluate your instruction, plan instructional goals, and motivate students.