Presentation on theme: "FLUENCY INSTRUCTION. Fluency Instruction What is fluency? The ability to read a text quickly and accurately with expression and sound natural, as if speaking."— Presentation transcript:
Fluency Instruction What is fluency? The ability to read a text quickly and accurately with expression and sound natural, as if speaking.
Why is fluency important? Bridges the gap between word recognition and comprehension Reading focus is on what the text means rather than decoding The reader is able to make connections among the ideas in the text The reader is able to make connections between the text and background knowledge Allows for simultaneous word recognition and comprehension
Recent Research by National Assessment for Educational Progress (NAEP ) 44% of a representative sample of fourth graders were low in fluency students scoring lower in fluency also scored lower in comprehension.
Fluent readers are able to focus attention on comprehension by: making connections among text ideas assimilating the text ideas with their background knowledge Recognizing words automatically Grouping words quickly to help understand the text
Less Fluent Readers: Read slowly, word by word Are choppy and plodding oral readers Must focus attention on decoding individual words After decoding, have little attention left for comprehension of text
Fluency Development Continued Oral reading may still be expressionless, not fluent, due to automaticity emphasis only Fluent readers must know how to pause appropriately and when to change emphasis and tone by breaking the text into meaningful chunks of phrases and clauses. It is important to provide students with fluency instruction and practice while reading connected text. The important component of reading with expression is essential to fluency.
Degree of Fluency Depends on: What is being read Familiarity with vocabulary Amount of practice with the text Even skilled readers may not read fluently when faced with unfamiliar technical words or topics
What does research say about fluency? Two major instructional approaches investigated…… Repeated and Monitored Oral Reading (Repeated Reading) Independent Silent Reading
Repeated and Monitored Oral Reading (Repeated Reading) Substantially improves word recognition, speed, and accuracy, as well as fluency. Improves reading comprehension to a lesser but still considerable extent Improves overall reading ability of all elementary school students Effective techniques related to this approach include: –Students read and reread text until a certain level of fluency is attained (usually four times is enough) –Use of audiotapes with books, tutors, peer guidance, etc.
How does fluency develop? Early readers have slow, labored, oral reading because they are just learning to decode. Fluency develops gradually over time with ample opportunity for practice. Automaticity is fast, effortless word recognition and is necessary, but not sufficient for fluency. Automaticity of word recognition in isolation does not necessarily transfer to reading connected text.
Independent Silent Reading One major difference between good and poor readers is the amount of time spent reading—independent silent reading increases the time spent reading. Independent silent reading requires guidance and feedback. Research has not confirmed or disproved the benefits of independent silent reading without guidance and feedback.
How can we encourage students’ fluency? Model fluent reading –Students learn how oral reading can help make sense of written text –Read aloud effortlessly and with expression daily for your students so they know how a fluent reader sounds. –In primary grades read aloud from a big book –Point to each word as you read to show how and where to pause and when to raise and lower your voice.
Have adults or other family members read aloud to students. The more models of fluent reading the children hear, the better. Also increases children’s knowledge of the world, vocabulary, familiarity with written language, and reading interest.
Have students repeatedly reread passages aloud with guidance Have students practice the text you modeled first Know various repeated reading approaches Rereading the text four times is usually sufficient to improve fluency Know your students’ reading levels
Know what your students should be reading (Continued) Students should practice rereading independent level text – a text they can read with 95% accuracy or misread only 1 out of 20 words. Students should not be reading frustration level texts independently, because the focus is on decoding and not comprehension. Students should be reading relatively short texts between 50-200 words depending on the student’s age. Students should have access to a variety of reading materials-stories, nonfiction, and poetry.
Some Types of Repeated Reading Student-Adult Reading Choral Reading Tape-Assisted Reading Partner Reading Reader’s Theatre Echo Reading
Student-Adult Reading One-on-one student/adult reading with a teacher, parent, classroom aide, or tutor Adult models text first, then student reads with adult providing help and encouragement Student rereads until fluent, approximately three to four rereadings
Choral Reading Students read along as a group with teacher or other fluent adult reader Students have a copy of the same text or a big book can be used Text should be relatively short and at student independent reading level Patterned or predictable books are useful because repetition invites participation Model fluent reading first then reread it and invite students to join in Continue rereading and encourage students to participate Should be read three to five times (not necessarily on the same day)
Tape-Assisted Reading Students read along in books as they hear a fluent reader read the tape a book at child’s independent reading level is needed a tape recording of the book read at about 80- 100 words per minute (with no music or sound effects) is needed Student reads along with the tape until able to read independently without the tape
Partner Reading Paired students take turns reading to each other More fluent paired with less fluent reader - similar to student/adult reading Same level readers paired to reread a story already introduced and taught by teacher
Reader’s Theatre Students rehearse and perform a play for peers or others They read scripts adapted from books rich in dialogue Students play characters or narrator Provides readers with a legitimate reason to reread text and practice fluency Promotes cooperative interaction with peers Makes the reading task appealing
Echo Reading The teacher reads a portion of a text and the students immediately repeat the portion that the teacher read. Material can be read in phrases or sentences, and finger pointing can be used. Especially effective with content area text Should be performed frequently, but should last no more than 20 minutes Each learner’s goal should be to replicate the teacher’s performance with precision while reading.
Pros and Cons of Independent Silent Reading The greatest increase in reading fluency progress happens in direct instruction with the teacher. Most instructional reading time should be used for direct teaching of reading skills and strategies. Struggling readers need direct instruction. Struggling readers are not likely to make efficient and effective use of silent independent reading. Encourage students to read at home.
Reggie Routman states… “Independent silent reading is an indispensable part of a balanced reading program.” Students take responsibility for their own reading. The importance of silent reading can not be overstated. In a study of fifth graders’ activities outside school, it was found that “time spent reading books was the best predictor of a child’s growth as a reader from the second to the fifth grade.” Reggie Routman “Independent Reading.” Invitations, [Portsmith, NH: Heineman, 1988, pp. 41-42]
Sharen Taberski states… Providing independent reading sessions gives the children opportunity to practice reading and use strategies that the teacher has demonstrated. Independent reading opportunities should include “just right” books – books that support their growth Students need to know it is their responsibility to make sense of what the author has written Sharon Taberski “From Where You Are Thinking,” On Solid Ground [Portsmith, NH: Heineman, 2000, Chapter 1, pp. 7]
Do we need fluency Instruction? Students need fluency instruction when they are not automatic in word recognition while reading their texts Automaticity has not been achieved when Students read an unpracticed text with more than 10% word recognition errors Students do not read orally with expression Students’ oral reading comprehension is poor
Should fluency be assessed? Formal and informal measures ensure your students are making appropriate progress Helps determine effectiveness of instruction and set instructional goals Student motivation is increased when fluency growth is graphed and shown to students Formal measures include taking timed samples of student’s reading rate and comparing it to published fluency norms Informal measures include listening to children’s oral reading and making a judgment about fluency progress
Fluency Summary Fluency is quick and accurate reading of text with expression. Fluency frees students to understand what they read. Fluency progress is achieved by modeling fluent reading and having students engage in repeated oral reading. Assessing student progress in fluency helps you to evaluate your instruction, plan instructional goals, and motivate students.