2Fluency Assessment“Because reading is so critical to success in and out of school and because many students struggle with fluent reading, fluency should be assed often. Effective fluency assessment provide information that will guide instruction and improve student outcomes”(Hosp, Hosp, and Howell 2007)
3Fluency Assessments consists of: Listening to students read aloudCollecting information on oral reading accuracy, rate, and prosody.
4Hints to successful reading fluency assessment Provide reliable and consistent scores, regardless who administers the assessment.Should provide valid, meaningful data for making instructional decisions.Assessment should be efficient in administration, scoring, and interpretation.“Should be quick and easy to use as possible, or teachers may not find time do use them” (Tim Rasinski, 2004)
5Oral Reading Fluency (ORF) Curriculum-based measurement (CBM) is the most commonly used assessment tool for measuring ORF.ORF is a good predicator of future reading performance.
6Value of Oral Reading Fluency- Curriculum-Based Measurement Identify students at risk of reading failure.Identify students not making adequate progress with the current given instructions.Identify student’s instructional levelIndentify students who need additional diagnostic evaluation.
7Conducting an ORF CBM Assessment Listen for one (1) minute as a student reads aloud from an unpracticed, grade level passage.Count words read during the one minute (Rate)Count the number of errors the student made (Accuracy)ORF is expressed as Words Correct Per Minute (WCPM)ORF Score = (total words read – errors)Example: 84 words – 2 errors = 82 WCPM
8Other ORFResearch suggests the Maze CBM for grades 4 and above is a more reliable predicator of future reading performance. (Hosp et al. 2007)Prosodic Reading measures the expressiveness of a students oral speech.
9Maze Curriculum-Based Measurement Sample Student reads silently a passage and about every seventh word, they choose from a possible three (3) words, the word that best fits in the sentence.This assessment is done independently and administered for two minutes.
10Assessment of Prosodic Reading Teacher listens and assesses the student’s oral reading, and then compares it to a National assessment.Assessment focus is on stress, phrasing, intonation expression, and pausesThe Prosody Assessment Rating Scale can be found on Page 334.
11Prosodic Reading Key Vocabulary Stress - How student emphasize various words.Phrasing - Length of pauses between phrases.Intonation - How student uses end-mark punctuation to guide their voice expression.Expression - Does their vocal tone accurately represent character’s mental state?Pauses - Does student pause for punctuations; commas and end marks.
12Setting Expectations using ORF ORF norms and weekly rates are good standards to use in comparing students’ performance and measuring progress.Establishing Individual Weekly Growth Rates for students can allow parents, teachers, and students to have a common focus for success and improvement.
13Identifying Students at Risk Charting students goals and progress provides teachers data to evaluate if the instruction the student is receiving is sufficient or if it needs to be adjusted.How do I determine if the student is a Dysfluent Reader?
14Diagnosis of Dysfluent Reading Dysfluent Reading is when a student is below expected level of reading or not making sufficient progress.Students deemed a Dysfluent Reader will require that more data be collected.Common causes of a Dysfluent Reader are: phonemic awareness, decoding, vocabulary language syntax, and content knowledge.See Possible Causes of Dysfluency chart on Page 335.
15Key VocabularyPhonemic Awareness – the ability to detect, identify, and manipulate phonemes in spoken wordsDecoding –converting a word from print to speechVocabulary Language Syntax – correctly understanding the placement and context of the vocabulary terms usedContent Knowledge – having enough background knowledge to understand the text being read
16SummaryAssessing students Oral Reading Fluency provides valuable data to support teachers in their instructional decisions.Oral Reading Fluency assessments should be made frequently and charted to give maximum support to teachers and students.Listen to students read aloud and determine ORF score.Focus on and chart student progress in the following areas: Rate, Accuracy, Prosody.Modify instruction as needed to increase student success.