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The Intertestamental Period: From Babylon To The Birth Of Christ Persian Period.

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Presentation on theme: "The Intertestamental Period: From Babylon To The Birth Of Christ Persian Period."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Intertestamental Period: From Babylon To The Birth Of Christ Persian Period

2 Announcements

3 Intertestamental Period WeekDateTopic 105 Mar 14Overview 212 Mar 14Babylonian Period ( BC) 319 Mar 14Persian Period ( BC) 426 Mar 14Greek Period ( BC) 502 Apr 14Ptolemaic ( BC) 609 Apr 14Syrian ( BC) 716 Apr 14Maccabean Part 1 ( BC) 823 Apr 14Maccabean Part 2 ( BC) 930 Apr 14Independence ( BC) 1007 May 14Rome Intervenes (63 – 37 BC) 1114 May 14Herod (37 BC – 4 BC) 1221 May 14The IT Period and Christianity (4 BC – 70 AD) 1328 May 14Review

4 Today’s Objectives Review last week’s lesson Review the transition of power between Babylon and the Persians Review key Biblical scriptures Learn about the political, social, economic, cultural, and religious issues during the Persian rule over Israel Learn where and why all the Israelites did not return to Judah Learn about the fall of the Persian empire

5 Last week’s lesson Reviewed the historical background from which Babylon was formed Learned about he historical background behind the rise of Babylon –Sumerian city-states –Akkadians –Assyrians Learned about the fall of Judah and the captivity Learned about Babylon’s demise

6 Reference Material KJV (w/ Apocrypha) –1 st and 2 nd Maccabbees Josephus – The Complete Works Herodotus – The History Intertestamental History – Mark Moore Ancient Rome – Simon Baker Harding University – BNEW 112 Course Notes – Dr. Thompson

7 Persian Rule BC –Early Achaemenian kings –Late Achaemenian kings Cyrus, liberator of the exiled Jews, is considered to be the beginning of the line Policy was to show autonomy to those nations under their control Reverse policies of forced emigrations used by Assyrians and Babylonians

8 Persian Empire

9 Cyrus II The Great BC Raised up by God to restore the Jews to the promised land (Isa 45:1-2 and Ezra 1:1-4) Policies confirmed in the Cyrus CylinderCyrus Cylinder Set the religious tone that would follow the Early Achaemenian dynasty Allows the Jews to return around 536 BC Yet, he places his faith in the god Marduk

10 Cyrus Cylinder

11 Marduk

12 Cambyses II BC Son of Cyrus the Great Before setting out on an expedition, he killed his brother Bardiya (Smerdis), whom Cyrus had appointed governor of the eastern provinces Finished the expansion of the Persian empire into Egypt Forces invaded the Kingdom of Kush (Sudan) without any success Died in battle

13 Darius I, the Great BC Organized the empire into satrapies Facilitated communications and travel Made an initial attack on Greece –Battle of Marathon in 490 BC Behistun Inscription honors himBehistun Inscription Darius was a Zoroastrian - monotheistic

14 Behistun Inscription

15 Xerxes I BC Same as biblical Ahasuerus in the book of Esther Esther made Queen under Xerxes Feast of Purim established under him Massive invasion of Greece –Failed –Battle of Salamis in 480 BC

16 Artaxerxes I BC Last of the powerful rulers of the empire Tradition of weakening the Athenians by funding their enemies in Greece –Prompted formation of alliances within Greece Return of priest and scribe Ezra to Jerusalem – 458 BC (Ezra 7:13-28) Return of Nehemiah as Governor to Jerusalem – 445 BC Strengthening of Jerusalem to protect their western fringes

17 Later Achaemenian Xerxes II (423 BC) –Murdered in the first year of his reign –Marked the end of the legitimate line of kings Darius II ( BC) –Illegitimate son of Artaxerxes I –Last Persian king mentioned in the OT (Read Neh 12:22 – called Darius the Persian) –Elephantine Papyri written in 407 BC Artaxerxes III ( BC) –Regained Eypt

18 Arses ( BC) –Youngest son of King Artaxerxes III –Increased hostilities with the Macedonians Darius III ( BC) –Became king the same year as Alexander of Macedon –Alexander defeats him in the critical battle of Issus (333 BC) Iskedurun, Turkey region –Defeat at Gaugamela (331 BC) Northern Iraq Later Achaemenian

19 Jews Under Persian Rule Some freedom Those who remained in Babylon later produced the Babylonian Talmud Remained a vassal state of Persia –Had to pay taxes –Had its’ own Governor –Own coinage Those in Jerusalem protected the approaches to Persia from the eastern Mediterranean Sea

20 Fall of Persia Darius III was ill-experienced in governing 334 BC - wars of Alexander the Great begin Second Persian occupation of Egypt began in 343 BC and ended in 332 BC when Alexander the Great entered Egypt where he was welcomed as a liberator in Persian- occupied Egypt. Next, Alexander marched on Susa in Persia and forced a surrender Darius III was killed, Alexander declares himself Darius' successor, as Artaxerxes V

21 Route of Alexander’s March

22 Review Reviewed last week’s lesson Reviewed the transition of power between Babylon and the Persians Review key Biblical scriptures Learn about the background of Persian rule over the Jews Learn where and why all the Israelites did not return to Judah Learn about the fall of the Persian empire Next week – Greek Empire


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