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The Intertestamental Period: From Babylon To The Birth Of Christ The Time of Herod.

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Presentation on theme: "The Intertestamental Period: From Babylon To The Birth Of Christ The Time of Herod."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Intertestamental Period: From Babylon To The Birth Of Christ The Time of Herod

2 Announcements

3 Intertestamental Period WeekDateTopic 105 Mar 14Overview 212 Mar 14Babylonian Period ( BC) 319 Mar 14Persian Period ( BC) 426 Mar 14Greek Period ( BC) 502 Apr 14Ptolemaic ( BC) 609 Apr 14Syrian ( BC) 716 Apr 14Maccabean Part 1 ( BC) 823 Apr 14Maccabean Part 2 ( BC) 930 Apr 14Independence ( BC) 1007 May 14Rome Intervenes (63 – 37 BC) 1114 May 14Herod (37 BC – 4 BC) 1221 May 14The IT Period and Christianity (4 BC – 70 AD) 1328 May 14Review

4 Today’s Objectives Review last week’s lesson –Four political groups –Julius Caesar, Antony and Octavius –Herod’s rise Learn about the conflict between Octavian and Antony and its’ effect on Judea Learn about Octavian as Caesar Augustus Learn about the origins of the Herodian family Learn about Herod’s rule –Efforts as king –Intervention with the birth of Christ –Death and division of the kingdom

5 Reference Material KJV (w/ Apocrypha) –1 st and 2 nd Maccabbees Josephus – The Complete Works Herodotus – The History Intertestamental History – Mark Moore Ancient Rome – Simon Baker Harding University – BNEW 112 Course Notes – Dr. Thompson Intertestamental Period – John Battle

6 Where we left off…. Four main Jewish political groups: Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, Zealots Pompey’s intervenes in the Jewish Civil War and takes the land of the Jews Rise and fall of Julius Caesar –Victory over Pompey –Political decrees which impact Judea –Caesar’s murder Herod rises from governor of Galilee to a defeated leader living in Rome Herod’s return to Judah Antony and Octavius

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8 Antipater II, Phasael and Herod In gratitude, Caesar appointed Antipater II as the administrator of Judea (47 BC) –Under Cassius Adds territories to Judea taken from Pompey Antipater II appoints his two sons to posts –Phasael is made governor of Jerusalem –Herod is made governor of Galilee After Caesar is murdered (44 BC), Cassius seizes control of Judea Antipater II is murdered (43 BC) Phasael and Harod become joint rulers of Judea (42 BC)

9 Marc Antony and Octavian Octavian was Caesar’s nephew Antony and Octavian defeat Cassius and Brutus in the battle of Philippi (42 BC) Philippi becomes a Roman colony, making them Roman citizens (Acts 16:12) Phasael and Herod switch allegiance to Antony, who confirms their position Parthians invade Palestine –40 BC –Capture and imprison Hyrcanus II and Phasael –Herod escapes, eventually to Rome

10 Octavian fights Antony Source of contention –Antony’s neglect for his wives including Octavian’s sister –Antony gave Cleopatra rule of conquered land –Octavian had taken power and territory of Lepidus (part of the Triumvirate) Herod the Great aligned with Antony Battle of Actium occurs –31 BC –Octavian defeat Antony (who later kills himself) –Octavian awarded the title of Augustus –Recognized as the transition of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire

11 Battle of Actium

12 Caesar Augustus Herod promises his allegiance to Augustus Augustus adds to Herod’s domain –Nearly doubles in size Augustus reigns from 31 BC to 14 AD –Grand nephew of Julius Caesar –Dies at the age of 76 Outlives Herod the Great by 10 years Under Augustus’ rule –Orders a census of the Roman empire (Mic 5:2) –Census caused the birth of Jesus Christ to be recorded in Bethlehem (Luke 2:1-7) –John the Baptist’s ministry

13 Herod Family Originally Idumean, but claimed to be Jews (Ant ) –Decedents of Esau (Gen 25) By necessity, they align with Rome Established the High Priests and deposed without regard to the Law Antipater as the Patriarch

14 Israel and Judah Around 800 BC Multiple Kingdoms Kingdom of Israel and Judah are divided Edom is to the south of Judah Petra is one of the major cities of Edom

15 Herod’s Rise In Rome, Herod makes a favorable impression on Octavian and Antony Senate appoints him “king of the Jews” –40 BC (Josephus – , mainly 4) –Added parts of Samaria and Idumea to his kingdom –Only “theoretical” at this time because it was controlled by the Parthians Herod then sets out to retake his kingdom –Jerusalem falls in 37 BC –Gained favor with Cassius, Syrian Proconsul

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17 Herod The Great Ruled from 37 BC to 4 AD Personality –Describes as cruel and vicious –Jealous man, sought to kill rivals to his throne –Herod had Hyrcanus killed Construction projects Provided Jews a measure of their wants –Peace and protection –Lower taxes and greater public service –Freedom from Gentile corruption of religion

18 Rebuilding of the Temple Started in BC –Read John 2:12-22 –Was still being built during the time of Jesus –According to Josephus, it wasn’t completed until 65 AD –Eventually destroyed by the Romans in 70 AD Rebuilt the temple at Samaria at the same time Provided for pagan worship as well in various locations

19 Herod’s Temple

20 Herod and Christ Herod hears early reports of the birth of the “king of the Jews” (Read Matt 2) Tries to have the infant Jesus killed Joseph, Mary, and Jesus escape –To Egypt –Why Egypt? –Large Jewish population at the time, remember Herod becomes furious –Has all the infants in Bethlehem killed Joseph, Mary, and Jesus return after Herod dies, would have been around 4 BC

21 Herod’s Death Herod grows more suspicious and cruel Had lost the confidence and favor of the Romans –Order a tax registration in 8 BC Contracts a disease, possibly a cancer –Herod orders key Jewish leaders to be jailed –Orders their execution when he dies –Order not carried out Herod’s kingdom is divided –Three younger sons inherit the kingdom

22 Division of the Herod’s Kingdom Archelaus –4 BC – 6 AD –Became ruler of the Jews –Territory included Judea, Idumea, and Samaria Herod Antipas –4 BC – 39 AD –Became a subordinate rule below the rank of a king, most often mentioned in the NT –Territory included Galilee and Perea Philip the Tetrarch –4 BC – 34 AD –Northeast of Galillee, Iturea, Trachonitis

23 LG – Archelaus P – Antipas O – Phillip GR – Salome DG – Roman Province Y – Autonomous cities Division of Herod’s Kingdom

24 Review Reviewed last week’s lesson –Four political groups –Julius Caesar, Antony and Octavius –Herod’s rise Learned about the conflict between Octavian and Antony and its’ effect on Judea Learned about Octavian as Caesar Augustus Learned about the origins of the Herodian family Learned about Herod’s rule –Efforts as king –Intervention with the birth of Christ –Death and division of the kingdom


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