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The Intertestamental Period: From Babylon To The Birth Of Christ Greek Period.

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Presentation on theme: "The Intertestamental Period: From Babylon To The Birth Of Christ Greek Period."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Intertestamental Period: From Babylon To The Birth Of Christ Greek Period

2 Announcements

3 Intertestamental Period WeekDateTopic 105 Mar 14Overview 212 Mar 14Babylonian Period ( BC) 319 Mar 14Persian Period ( BC) 426 Mar 14Greek Period ( BC) 502 Apr 14Ptolemaic ( BC) 609 Apr 14Syrian ( BC) 716 Apr 14Maccabean Part 1 ( BC) 823 Apr 14Maccabean Part 2 ( BC) 930 Apr 14Independence ( BC) 1007 May 14Rome Intervenes (63 – 37 BC) 1114 May 14Herod (37 BC – 4 BC) 1221 May 14The IT Period and Christianity (4 BC – 70 AD) 1328 May 14Review

4 Today’s Objectives Review last week’s lesson Review the transition of power between Persians and the Greeks Review key Biblical scriptures Learn about the political, social, economic, cultural, and religious issues during the Greek rule over Israel Learn about Alexander's impact on the Mediterranean and Asian regions Learn about the transition of the Greek empire

5 Last week’s lesson Reviewed last week’s lesson Reviewed the transition of power between Babylon and the Persians Reviewed key Biblical scriptures Learned about the political, social, economic, cultural, and religious issues during the Persian rule over Israel Learned where and why all the Israelites did not return to Judah Learned about the fall of the Persian empire

6 Reference Material KJV (w/ Apocrypha) –1 st and 2 nd Maccabbees Josephus – The Complete Works Herodotus – The History Intertestamental History – Mark Moore Ancient Rome – Simon Baker Harding University – BNEW 112 Course Notes – Dr. Thompson

7 Persian Empire

8 Greek Rule 1 of 3 Alexander was the son of Philip of Macedon Alexander claimed paternal descent from Heracles and maternal descent from Achilles Philip was a very capable General and administrator Forced the independent and warring city- states of Macedonia and Greece proper into a national identity

9 Greek Rule 2 of 3 Philip obtained the best teachers for his young son Alexander; foremost among them was Aristotle, reading Homer Philip was murdered in 336 B.C. Alexander was forced, for his own survival, to assume aggressive military leadership of the nation which his father had forged together Alexander excelled leading his army Solidified his hold on Greece

10 Greek Rule 3 of 3 Captured and burned the city of Thebes and sold its inhabitants into slavery Captured the ancient city of Troy Alexander refined the phalanx system of attack and defensephalanx Made superior use of his cavalrycavalry Unrestrained immorality led to his demise His kingdom was divided up among his generals Successful in spreading the Greek culture, or “Hellenization”

11 1 Maccabees Chapter 1: And it happened, after that Alexander son of Philip, the Macedonian, who came out of the land of Chettiim, had smitten Darius king of the Persians and Medes, that he reigned in his stead, the first over Greece, 2 And made many wars, and won many strong holds, and slew the kings of the earth, 3 And went through to the ends of the earth, and took spoils of many nations, insomuch that the earth was quiet before him; whereupon he was exalted and his heart was lifted up. 4 And he gathered a mighty strong host and ruled over countries, and nations, and kings, who became tributaries unto him. 5 And after these things he fell sick, and perceived that he should die. 6 Wherefore he called his servants, such as were honourable, and had been brought up with him from his youth, and parted his kingdom among them, while he was yet alive. 7 So Alexander reigned twelve years, and then died. 8 And his servants bare rule every one in his place. 9 And after his death they all put crowns upon themselves; so did their sons after them many years: and evils were multiplied in the earth. 10 And there came out of them a wicked root Antiochus surnamed Epiphanes, son of Antiochus the king, who had been an hostage at Rome, and he reigned in the hundred and thirty and seventh year of the kingdom of the Greeks.

12 Phalanx 256 Men 18 foot pike

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14 Thracian Maedi (339 B.C.) Alexander was 16 years old Philip departed to wage war against Byzantium Alexander was left in charge as regent of the kingdom The Thracian Maedi revolted Alexander responded quickly and crushed the Maedi insurgence driving them from their territory, colonized it with Greeks and founded a city called Alexandropolis

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16 Battle of Issus (333 B.C.) Darius III of Persia did not take Alexander’s campaign seriously Alexander intended to “liberate” all of Asia Minor from Persian control Darius with a large army met Alexander at Issus, near the Cilician Gates Routed the Persians and captured the royal household Darius barely escaped with his life Battle marks the end of Persia’s dominance over the Near East

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18 Occupation of Jerusalem (332 B.C.) In order to protect his southern flank, Alexander marched south to take Palestine and Egypt Most cities surrendered to him, except Tyre and Gaza Alexander then spent the winter in Egypt and returned north in the spring of 331 Ordered the building of Alexandria Jews gained favor under Alexander’s rule Samaritans tried to share in this favor, but angered Alexander who destroyed Samaria

19 The “New” Alexander Alexander declared himself basileus (“king”) and the “son of Ammon” (an Egyptian sun god) He adopted the clothing and behavior of an Oriental royal leader Strained the relation between him and his army He became increasingly cruel Merciless sack of Persepolis

20 Alexander’s Death Alexander continued to push his troops eastward Unrestrained expansion of the empire On the way to the Ganges Valley in India his army refused to go further Forced finally to start making his way back to Greece Alexander died in Babylon in 323 B.C. at the age of 32 Died of a “sickness” possibly poison

21 Division of the Greek Empire Diadochoi; it is the title given to the Greek generals who carved up Alexander’s empire among themselves after his death One of them, Cassander, murdered Alexander’s widow and his infant son After seven years of fighting, four men emerged as the most powerful: –Antigonus (Mediterranean Sea to Asia) –Ptolemy Lagi (Egypt and south Syria) –Cassander (Macedonia) –Lysimachus (Thrace)

22 Further Division In 312 B.C. the other three Diadochoi contained the overambitious Antigonus In 311 B.C. Ptolemy’s General Seleucus split off on his own and established himself as ruler of Babylon and Syria Four rulers still remained (Dan 7:6; 8:8; 11:4) Of special importance to Jewish history: –Ptolemies in Egypt –Seleucids in Syria –Palestine became a political football between these competing powers

23 Route of Alexander’s March

24 Alexander’s Influence on Jews Ruled over a further degeneration of the relationship between Jews and Samaritans Does not destroy the Temple as requested by the Samaritans Jewish history states that Alexander gives Jews freedom to worship God Jews continue to flourish as a separate and distinct entity for 165 years Jews - with the exception of a small minority - reject Hellenism, Greeks grow intolerable and the Greek culture infects Judaism

25 Review Reviewed last week’s lesson Reviewed the transition of power between Persians and the Greeks Reviewed key Biblical scriptures Learn about the political, social, economic, cultural, and religious issues during the Greek rule over Israel Learn about Alexander's impact on the Mediterranean and Asian regions Learn about the transition of the Greek empire Next week – Ptolemaic Empire


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