Presentation on theme: "Middle East Empires Chaldeans (New Babylonians) And The Persians."— Presentation transcript:
Middle East Empires Chaldeans (New Babylonians) And The Persians
Chaldeans and Persians Essential Questions: –How do civilizations rise and fall? –What kinds of artifacts do civilizations create? –What is the best policy toward conquered peoples?
Chaldeans Chaldeans controlled all of the Fertile Crescent and more!
Chaldeans Background: –Non-Semitic people from Arabia (south) –Semi-Nomads –Occupied Ur for a long time Moved into Babylon
Chaldeans 605 BC: under Nabopolassar, conquered Assyrians and destroy Ninevah. –Teamed up with other groups in M.E., esp. the Medes New Empire: “New Babylonian Empire” Ninevah being destroyed
The Chaldeans Nebuchadnezzar: ( BC) –Son of Nabopolassar –Powerful king. –Conquered S. Kingdom of Israel (Judah). –Deported 1000’s of Jews to Babylon. “Babylonian Exile”. The first Ghetto.
The Chaldeans Accomplishments of Nebuchadnezzar
The Chaldeans BABYLON: The City: –Nebuchadnezzar best known for rebuilding Babylon. –He made it one of the most magnificent cities of the world. –City walls: wide enough to have rows of houses on either side. –In the center of the city ran the Procession Street, passing through the Ishtar Gate.
The Chaldeans The Ishtar Gate and Procession Street
The Chaldeans BABYLON: The City: –Used brilliant colored glazed tile on walls. BOTH RELIEFS: FROM ISHTAR GATE
The Chaldeans Babylon: The city under Nebuchadnezzar
The Chaldeans The Hanging Gardens: –Palace was terraced. Each terrace with huge gardens. –These roof gardens or Hanging Gardens regarded as one of the Wonders of the World. –It was said that the gardens were built in stepped terraces which rose high into the air until they reached the top of the city walls. –Built to remind his wife of her homeland. –it was about 400 feet wide by 400 feet long and more than 80 feet high.
The Chaldeans The Great Ziggurat: –“a tower of solid masonry, a furlong [220 yards] in length and breadth, upon which was raised a second tower, and on that a third, and so on up to eight. The ascent to the top is on the outside, by a path which winds round all the towers”.
The Chaldeans The Great Ziggurat:
The Chaldeans End of Babylonians: –In 555 BC, Babylon was controlled by a king not loyal to Chaldeans, Nabonidus ( ). –He was the son of a nobleman and high priestess, loyal to god Sin at Harran and the Assyrian royal house. –-He replaced Marduk with Assyrian god. –Babylonians especially the priests were angered. –They helped Persians conquer Babylon in 538 BC. –They were treated as liberators. The Persian leader, upon entering Babylon, first worshipped at their temple.
Persian empire Largest empire until Rome
CYRUS THE GREAT Dates: BC The First Achmaenenian Emperor. Great Conqueror Best known for his tolerance and generous attitude towards those he defeated. –Seen as a liberator in Babylon esp. by Jews. Allowed 40,000 Jews to go back home (537 BC). He had respect for religious and cultural beliefs of others.
Persians Cyrus His Goal: Unite world under one rule, his own. –A Pax Achaemenica: Peace of Persia. He devised first postal system. He died in battle in 530 BC.
Darius I (Great) Became general when Cambyses (son of Cyrus) died. Dates: BC He made himself emperor. Organizing the empire: –Ordered new alphabet for Persian language. –Divided the empire into 20 provinces –Put a satrap (governor) over each province. –Each province had to pay taxes to empire. –Developed a “Coin” system for the empire. –Built “Royal” Roads: connected all major cities. Roads had rest stops and inns along the way. Passports given to govt workers: free stay and food. –New calendar –Construction of large granaries for the army: now huge armies were possible.
Darius I (Great) Followed Cyrus by accepting and worshipping gods of other peoples. BUILDING PROJECTS: –Had Behistun inscription written (Iran): talks of his victories. –Two palace cities: Persepolis and Susa, which became the new capital. –Canal: Nile to Red Sea. Began Persian Wars against Greece –Lost at battle of Marathon
XERXES Dates: BC. Son of Darius I. Assumed throne after father died. Put down revolts in both Egypt and Babylon. Importance: tried to fulfill his father’s desire of conquering Greece.
XERXES Xerxes war with Greece: 480 BC –Xerxes put together largest army in history. Soldiers were gathered from every Persian territory from India to Africa to Europe. Over 2 million soldiers were arrayed against the Greeks. It took six years to build this massive army. Xerxes banked his entire kingship on victory over the Greeks. He did have a small victory at Thermopylae. But lost hugely at Salamis and Plataea. –Assassinated in 465 by his chief minister.
DARIUS III Dates: BC Put down rebellions from a number of satrapies. Most important: War with Alexander the Great. –334 Alexander moved into Asia Minor Battle of Issus 333, darius defeated. –332 Alexander defeated Darius at Granicus Darius lost control of Asia Minor –331 Alexander took Egypt. –330 Alexander took Middle East Battle of Gaugamela. –Darius III killed by his own men in 330 –Persian Empire came to an end. A Greek empire under Alexander had begun.