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Persia Attacks the Greeks

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1 Persia Attacks the Greeks
Using illustrations from National Geographic’s Journey Across Time

2 Early Persia Persia: civilization SW of what is today Iran
Early Persians were warriors and nomads Cyrus the Great united Persians into a powerful kingdom: An empire larger than any yet seen in the world

3 Persia’s Empire 539 BC Cyrus’s Persian armies capture Babylon in Mesopotamia Then: Asia Minor Syria Canaan Phoenician cities Cyrus treats the subjects well, & even let Jews, that had been captured by Babylonians, to return home.

4 Reminder Timeline of Mesopotamia
Mesopotamia: Sumer Ca 3,000 BC Sargon & Akkadians Ca 2,340 BC Assyrians Ca 900 BC Hammurabi & Babylonians Ca 1,800 BC Nebuchadnezzar & Chaldeans Ca 605 Persians from NE capture 539 BC

5 Persia’s Empire Cyrus’s merciful rule helped keep the growing empire together. They then continued to conquer: Egypt Western India Thrace (region NE of Greece) The empire was then about the size of USA today

6 Persia’s Government By 521 BC Darius became the new emperor. 20 provinces called satrapies satrap: Tax collector, judge, chief of police, head recruiter of army Each satrap answered to king/emperor of Persia Paid men to be full-time soldiers, incl. the Immortals Religion: Zoroastrianism believed in one god (like the Jewish people, but unlike Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Greeks)

7 Reasons for the Persian Wars
Greek colonization clashed with Persians By 500’s BC Persia controlled Greek cities in Asia Minor 499 BC Greeks rebelled with Athenian army support, but were defeated King Darius now decided Greeks must be stopped from interfering with the Persian Empire

8 The Battle of Marathon 490 BC Persian fleet of 20,000 soldiers landed on plain of Marathon (close to Athens) 10,000 Athenian soldiers waited on the hills Persians waited, but grew impatient (began to board ships to sail to Athens) Athenians defeated the Persians easily Pheidippides; “Victory!”

9 Another Persian Strike
486 BC Darius’ son Xerxes became emperor after Darius died: Revenge against Athenians 480 BC launched invasion with 180,000 troops and thousands of warships and supply vessels Greeks joined forces Athenian general, Themistocles plan To have time to ready Greek fleet: 7,000 Greek soldiers hold of Persians at Thermopylae (Hot Gates); a narrow mountain pass

10 Another Persian Strike
Spartans especially brave incl. Leonidas Gave enough time to allow Athens to assemble 200 ships Greeks attacked Persian ships at straits of Salamis & defeated the Persian fleet Persian army still marched on: Athens Persians burned the city Now: Greeks more determined than ever….

11 The End of the Persian Empire
479 BC Greeks came together Greeks crushed Persian army at Plataea (NW of Athens) Persians retreated to Asia Minor Persia: lose strength, internal problems incl. new rulers raising taxes to pay for luxuries, as well as royal families fighting, plots to kill kings/emperors 334 BC Alexander the Great invaded 330 BC last Persian emperor died and Alexander the Great ruled

12 Main Ideas/ Summary Sentences for Ch.4.S2
The Persian Empire united a wide area under a single government. Both Sparta and Athens played roles in defeating the Persians.

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