Presentation on theme: "Persia Attacks the Greeks"— Presentation transcript:
1Persia Attacks the Greeks Using illustrations fromNational Geographic’sJourney Across Time
2Early Persia Persia: civilization SW of what is today Iran Early Persians were warriors and nomadsCyrus the Greatunited Persians intoa powerful kingdom:An empire larger than any yet seen in the world
3Persia’s Empire539 BC Cyrus’s Persian armies capture Babylon in MesopotamiaThen: Asia MinorSyriaCanaanPhoenician citiesCyrus treats the subjects well, & even let Jews, that had been captured by Babylonians, to return home.
4Reminder Timeline of Mesopotamia Mesopotamia: SumerCa 3,000 BCSargon & Akkadians Ca 2,340 BCAssyriansCa 900 BCHammurabi & BabyloniansCa 1,800 BCNebuchadnezzar & ChaldeansCa 605Persians from NE capture539 BC
5Persia’s EmpireCyrus’s merciful rule helped keep the growing empire together.They then continued to conquer:EgyptWestern IndiaThrace (region NE of Greece)The empire was then about the size of USA today
6Persia’s GovernmentBy 521 BC Darius became the new emperor.20 provinces called satrapiessatrap: Tax collector, judge, chief of police, head recruiter of armyEach satrap answered to king/emperor of PersiaPaid men to be full-time soldiers, incl. the ImmortalsReligion: Zoroastrianismbelieved in one god (like the Jewish people, but unlike Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Greeks)
7Reasons for the Persian Wars Greek colonization clashed with PersiansBy 500’s BC Persia controlled Greek cities in Asia Minor499 BC Greeks rebelled with Athenian army support, but were defeatedKing Darius now decided Greeks must be stopped from interfering with the Persian Empire
8The Battle of Marathon490 BC Persian fleet of 20,000 soldiers landed on plain of Marathon (close to Athens)10,000 Athenian soldiers waited on the hillsPersians waited, but grew impatient (began to board ships to sail to Athens)Athenians defeated thePersians easilyPheidippides; “Victory!”
9Another Persian Strike 486 BC Darius’ son Xerxes becameemperor after Darius died:Revenge against Athenians480 BC launched invasion with180,000 troops and thousandsof warships and supply vesselsGreeks joined forcesAthenian general, Themistocles planTo have time to ready Greek fleet: 7,000 Greek soldiers hold of Persians at Thermopylae (Hot Gates); a narrow mountain pass
10Another Persian Strike Spartans especially brave incl. LeonidasGave enough time to allow Athens to assemble 200 shipsGreeks attacked Persianships at straits of Salamis& defeated the Persian fleetPersian army still marched on: AthensPersians burned the cityNow: Greeks more determined than ever….
11The End of the Persian Empire 479 BC Greeks came togetherGreeks crushed Persian army at Plataea (NW of Athens)Persians retreated to Asia MinorPersia: lose strength, internal problems incl. new rulers raising taxes to pay for luxuries, as well as royal families fighting, plots to kill kings/emperors334 BC Alexander the Great invaded330 BC last Persian emperor died and Alexander the Great ruled
12Main Ideas/ Summary Sentences for Ch.4.S2 The Persian Empire united a wide area under a single government.Both Sparta and Athens played roles in defeating the Persians.