6 Persian Wars 499 – 479 BCEWritten by the first Greek historian, HerodotusDefined the word History = InvestigationStories are embellishedAllies – States that agree to help each other against a common enemyAthens, Sparta and other Greek city-statesPersians – Iranian tribe that conquered Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, Egypt, and parts of India and Europe.Excellent archers
8 Ionian Revolt546 BCE, Persians conquered Greek settlements in Ionia (Turkey)Forced to pay taxes and serve in the Persian army499 BCE, Ionians asked Greeks for help.Tattooed a secret message in a slave’s head and sent him to Greek mainland.Sparta refuses, Athens helps briefly, then leavesPersians destroy Ionian city of Miletus
10 Post Ionian RevoltPersian King Darius decides to conquer Greek mainland.Sends messengers to ask for submissionAsked for Greek earth and waterAthenians and Spartans threw them into pits and wells telling them to, “take what they wanted.”This meant war.
12 Battle of MarathonKing Darius sails an army of 20,000 + cavalry (crash at Mt. Athos)Land on the plain of Marathon.Facing 10,000 Athenians led by Miltiades.Miltiades attacks while horses are out to pastureDead: 192 Athenians vs. 6,400 PersiansPersians sail to AthensMessenger runs 26.2 miles to Athens to prepare for Persians. Tells them, “Nike!” then drops deadAthens ready for Persians
15 Battle of ThermopylaeDarius’ son, Xerxes gets 180,000 troops to invade Greece.Army marched over floating bridge over the Hellespont10,000 troops dig canal for Navy to avoid Mt. AthosGreeks debate defensive strategiesAthens – navySpartan King Leonidas led the army
16 Battle Sight TodayIn ancient times the coastline was where the modern road lies, or even closer to the mountain
17 Battle of Thermopylae (cont.) Thermopylae is a narrow pass between the mountains and the sea north of Delphi6,000 Greeks drove back 180,000 PersiansGreek traitor, Ephialtes tells Xerxes the back route to surround GreeksLeonidas knows its over, sends army home300 Spartans stay to delay the PersiansFight to the death“Arrows will blot out the sun.” “We will fight in the shade”
20 Post Thermopylae Athenians heard of slaughter and fled. Athens destroyed.
21 Battle of Salamis Athenian Navy set a battle site at Salamis Again, narrow channelsGreeks sent a loyal slave to Xerxes. Told him an Athenian general wanted to change sides. Convinced him to attack immediately.Greeks retreated, before attackingLed them into the channel.Greek ships armed with rams in the front sunk 300 Persian ships.Greeks lost 40 ships
23 End of the Persian Wars Xerxes attacked next spring Spartans feared Athenians would make peace after the destruction of their home.Athens declared “common brotherhood with Greeks.” They would fight!479 BCE Battle of Plataea80,000 Greek hoplites destroyed the Persian army. No more threat!Greeks lost thousands, city of Athens, but they rebuilt.
24 Golden Age of Athens479 – 431 BCE Athens was the artistic and cultural center of Greece.Parthenon was pinnacle of architectureTheatre of DionysusThe Agora was the home of philosophers such as Socrates, Plato, and AristotleOlympic Games to honor ZeusAll funded by The Delian League
25 Alliances Between City-States After the Persian War, Sparta and Athens started to mistrust each other.The Delian League included Athens and other city-states on the Aegean coast and on islands in the Aegean Sea.The Peloponnesian League, led by Sparta, included most of the Peloponnesus peninsula and Macedonia.
26 Peloponnesian WarThe rivalry between the two city-states erupted in the Peloponnesian War, which Sparta won.Fighting made the Greeks weak and vulnerable.
27 Macedonia Philip II of Macedonia sees weakness in Greeks. Philip conquers most of Greek mainlandHis son, Alexander takes throne at age 20Studied under Aristotle as a youth.Alexander wants to fulfill Philip’s goal of conquering the PersiansInvades Asia Minor firstIf they fight, their city is destroyed. If they surrender, they get to keep gov’t and leaders
28 Alexander the GreatPhilip's son Alexander (later called “the Great”) combined the Greek and Macedonian armies into a massive fighting forceIn 334, he crossed into Asia Minor. In the next 10 years he conquered the entire Persian Empire, which included eastern Mediterranean countries as far as Egypt and extended inland as far as India.After Alexander died in 323 B.C. his empire was divided—but he had planted Hellenistic culture throughout the eastern Mediterranean region.
30 Hellenistic KingdomsEgypt under the Ptolemies(323–30 B.C.),Syria under the Seleucids(312–64 B.C.)Macedonia and Greece under the Antigonids (276–168 B.C.).Greek culture flourished in the new Hellenistic cities such as Antioch in Syria, and Alexandria in Egypt.30