Presentation on theme: "The Persian Wars Chapter 10 Section 3. I.Background: Why did the war between Greece and Persia start?"— Presentation transcript:
The Persian Wars Chapter 10 Section 3
I.Background: Why did the war between Greece and Persia start?
A. Persia- Empire that stretches from Asia Minor to India
B. Persia conquers Asia Minor in 545 BC 1. Greek city-states of Miletus, Ephesus and Halicarnassus are in Ionia which is in Asia Minor – so they are conquered, too!
2. (Remember!) Ionia had been settled by Mycenaeans (Greeks) fleeing the Dorians during the Dark Age!
C. Darius – Persian King, rules largest empire in the world!
D BC - Ionian city-states revolt against Persia and they ask Athens for help!
E. Darius destroys the three cities Miletus, Ephesus, and Halicarnassus 1. He swears REVENGE against Athens and Greece!
F. Darius demands “gifts of Earth and Water” (tribute which symbolizes submission and surrender) from the Greeks 1. Greeks refuse to give anything to Darius! 2. Darius is ANGRY
II. The Persian Wars: the four battles
A. 490 BC – First battle at Marathon 1. Darius crosses Aegean Sea with his men and lands at Marathon a. Marathon is a plain 26 miles northeast of Athens
2. Athenians seek aid from Sparta, but they refuse due to a religious festival
3.Miltiades - Athenian General a. Urges Athens to fight
b. His plan is to use the phalanx, a unique battle strategy with weak fighters in center and strong fighters on sides which encircle the enemy!
4. Athens wins the battle and Persia goes home
5.Pheidipides, Athens fastest runner, runs 26 miles to Athens, yells “Nike!” (victory) and dies from exhaustion a. Athenians, filled with confidence, hold commemorative race to celebrate the victory at Marathon b. marathon becomes a race at the Olympics
6. Silver mines discovered outside Athens a. Athens has extra money from them b. Themosticles - Athens leader, says to use money to build warships called triremes!
c.Trireme- warship, 3 rows of oarsmen stacked above each other; bronze prow
B. 480 BC - Second battle at Thermopylae 1.Xerxes is now Persian King, son of Darius 2. He calls together biggest army ever seen, 250,000 men
3.He marches to the Dardanelles Strait and makes a pontoon bridge (a floating bridge) for his men to cross from Asia to Europe a. First attempt – destroyed by a storm b. Second attempt - success
4.The Greeks then unite under Spartan leader, King Leonidas
5.March to Thermopylae - narrow mountain pass where Persians can be picked off a. There are 7,000 Greeks; the Greeks are outnumbered 35 to 1
6.Ephialtes – Greek traitor, shows Persians a goat path around the mountains
7.Greek army retreats, except for 300 Spartans and 700 other Greeks a. King Leonidas leads them b. Outnumbered 250 to 1 c. Fight to the last man against the Persians! – all killed d. They hold up the Persians long enough to allow the Greek allies to set up a defense of the Peloponnesus
8.Persians win this battle and march to Athens
C. 480 BC – Third battle at Salamis 1.Athenians go to Oracle of Delphi for prediction
a.Oracle- one who predicts the future b.Oracle says, “The wooden walls will save you”
c. Themosticles decides the wooden walls must mean…
d.The triremes, the ships they built!
2. Themosticles persuades Athenians to go to Salamis – island off the coast of Athens
3.Meanwhile, the Persians burn Athens to the ground 4.Persian Navy is lured (by reports of a pretend traitor) into the narrow strait between Salamis and mainland
a.Only a few Persian ships can enter at a time b.Greeks pick them off with their more maneuverable triremes
5.Greeks win naval battle against Persians 6.Xerxes returns home 7.Athenians return home to rebuild Athens
D.479 BC – Fourth battle at Plataea 1. Persians completely defeated!
III. Results of War
A.Europe and Greece “saved” from growing Persian Empire – they remain free and independent
B.Greece free to enter the Golden Age, fifty years of peace, and culture was very inspired
C.Unique Greek culture develops during the Golden Age which influences our culture today – especially Democracy, arts, architecture, and the theater