Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

SS.6.W.3.4.  The Persians started out as a small tribe in present-day Iran.  They built a large empire by conquering their neighbors.  At its height,

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "SS.6.W.3.4.  The Persians started out as a small tribe in present-day Iran.  They built a large empire by conquering their neighbors.  At its height,"— Presentation transcript:

1 SS.6.W.3.4

2  The Persians started out as a small tribe in present-day Iran.  They built a large empire by conquering their neighbors.  At its height, the Persian Empire was the largest empire the world had ever known.  King Darius reigned during this period.

3  In 546 B.C.E. the Persians had conquered the wealthy Greek settlements in Ionia.  The Ionians knew they could not defeat the Persians alone, so they asked mainland Greece for help.  Athens sent soldiers and a small fleet of ships.  Unfortunately, the Athenians went home after their initial success, and the Ionian army lost control of the region.

4  Angered by the aid Greece offered during the Ionian revolt, King Darius decided to conquer mainland Greece as well.  He demanded the Greeks obey him and pay tribute, but they refused.  In 490 B.C.E., Darius, furious at the Greeks for their refusal to pay, sent a large army across the Aegean Sea to Greece.  They assembled on the plain of Marathon.

5  A brilliant general named Miltiades convinced the other Greek commanders to fight the Persians at Marathon…except the Spartans who were celebrating a religious festival and refused to come.  Although Miltiades was left with far fewer men than the Persians, he decided to attack.

6  At Marathon, Miltiades ordered the center portion of his army to advance.  When the Persians also came forward, he ordered the left and right sides of his army to sweep down and attack the Persians from the sides as well.  The Greeks won a stunning victory, but their fight with the Persians had just begun.

7  After King Darius died, his son, Xerxes, organized another attack on Greece.  He put together a huge army of more than 180,000 soldiers.  To get his army to Greece, Xerxes chose to cross the Hellespont, a narrow sea channel between Europe and Asia.  There he made 2 bridges by roping hundreds of boats together with wooden boards across their bows.  Then he walked his army across the channel into Europe.

8  Several Greek city-states were overwhelmed, so Athens and Sparta decided they had to come together to fight their enemy.  The Athenian navy would try to stop the Persian navy, and the Spartan army, led by King Leonidas, would try to stop the Persian army.  The Spartans chose to make their stand at a place called Thermopylae, where the Persian army would have to go through a narrow pass between the mountains and the sea.

9  Leonidas has only 6,000- 7,000 Greek troops under his command to stop 180,000 Persians.  They were able to hold off the Persians for awhile, but then a Greek traitor led the Persians through a mountain path that would allow them to attack the Greeks from more than one angle.

10  Surrounded, Leonidas knew that he could only delay the Persian advance.  To keep his army from being destroyed, he ordered most of his troops to escape.  With a much smaller army, including 300 Spartans, he prepared to fight.  Although they fought bravely, all 300 were killed.

11  When the news of the slaughter at Thermopylae reached Athens, most people panicked and fled.  Themistocles, an Athenian navy leader, decided to try to fight the Persian navy in the narrow channels between the islands and the mainland.  The Athenians knew those waterways well, and the Persians would find it hard to maneuver their ships around the Greek navy.

12  Themistocles set a trap for the Persian navy near a place called Salamis.  He sent a loyal slave to Xerxes’ camp with a message that Themistocles wanted to change sides and join the Persians.  If Xerxes attacked now, he said, half the Greek sailors would surrender.

13  Xerxes fell for the trick and ordered his ships to enter the narrow waterway.  As the Persians approached, the Greek ships seemed to retreat in order to throw them off.  Really, they were just trying to lure them deeper into the channel.  Soon, the Persian ships were surrounded, and the Greeks sank 300 Persian ships.  The Greeks only lost 40 ships!

14  After the defeat at Salamis, Xerxes left the rest of his army in Greece with orders to attack again in the spring of 479 B.C.E.  When spring arrived, the Persians approached Athens once more, and a decisive battle took place near the town of Plataea.  Led by the Spartans, a force of 80,000 Greek troops destroyed the Persian army, and the threat from the Persian Empire was over.  This important victory preserved the Greeks’ independence.


Download ppt "SS.6.W.3.4.  The Persians started out as a small tribe in present-day Iran.  They built a large empire by conquering their neighbors.  At its height,"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google