Presentation on theme: "Today’s Title: Persian and Peloponnesian Wars DO NOW On this day in 1454, explorer Amerigo Vespucci was born. The continent we live on is named after."— Presentation transcript:
Today’s Title: Persian and Peloponnesian Wars DO NOW On this day in 1454, explorer Amerigo Vespucci was born. The continent we live on is named after Vespucci. What part of the world would you like to sail to and explore (by boat/ship)? Why did you choose this destination?
GREEK WORD OF THE DAY barbarian: βάρβαρος (Greek pronunciation: bárbaros – In ancient Greek, it means anyone who is not “Greek”—a stranger – You have 3 minutes to write a sentence under your DO NOW
Agenda 1.Glossary Builder 2.Wars in ancient Greece A.Key Players B.The Persian War C.The Peloponnesian War 3.Videos
Glossary Builder infantry: soldiers who fight on foot cavalry: the part of an army that fights on horses archers: someone who shoots arrows from a bow
Glossary Builder rivals: competitors alliance: an organization of nations or other groups to achieve a common goal (members are called allies) plague: a disease that causes death and spreads quickly to a large number of people:
Key Players of the Wars! Before we begin, let’s take a look at some key figures and places that were important to the two wars we will be learning about today: 1.Persia- an empire located in the Asia Minor King Darius King Xerxes 2.Ionia- a city-state in Greece under control by Persia 3.Athens- a city-state in central Greece located near the Aegean 4.Sparta- a city-state in Greece located in the Peloponnesian Peninsula
Wars in Greece! Ancient Greeks fought many wars. Among the most important were 1.The Persian Wars 2.The Peloponnesian War Persia was a land in the country that is now called Iran. In the 500s BCE, the Persians began taking over the city- states that were located in Europe (Turkey today) The area under Persian control during the Persian Wars was Asia Minor
The Persian War! Before we begin the story: – Turn to page 454-455 to see how a Greek Soldier looked like
The Persian War! The Persians were a big empire and they slowly started to take control of nearby cities. They captured the Greek city-state of Ionia! The Ionians were not happy! They asked Athens for help and together, they burned a Persian city!
The Persian War! Persian troops soon captured Ionian cities in Greece –burning some to the ground Darius, King of Persia was really angry with the Greeks so he set out to take revenge by conquering all of Greece So, the Ionians, Athenians and other Greeks came together to fight the Persians = they became allies!
The Persian War! In 490 BCE, about 20,000 Persian soldiers sailed to Greece They slowly started capturing the smaller islands and made their way to Athens The Athenians didn’t know what to do The citizens met in an assembly and voted: they needed to attack
The Persian War! There were two Persian Wars The first Persian War: – The Battle of Marathon 10,000 soldiers from Athens met the Persians at Marathon. The Athenians were outnumbered by the Persian army The Athenians didn’t even have infantry or cavalry, but fought the Persians and won!! The Persians fled to their ships! Victory had been accomplished!
The Persian War! The second Persian War: – After King Darius dies, his son Xerxes tries one more time to punish the Greeks – In 480 BCE, Xerxes assembles a large force to invade Greece once again – A series of battles begin… 1.The Battle of Thermopylae Winner: The Persians 2.The Battle of Salamis Winner: The Greeks
Independent Activity: The Persian War! In your textbook, read pages 450-453 and fill out the graphic organizer Be sure to carefully answer the review questions on the bottom! We will go over this graphic organizer together in 15 minutes!
The Peloponnesian War! So…the Persian Wars had ended, but do you think that Greece was in peace? – NOPE! Even though the Greek city- states worked together to defeat Persia, they were still rivals! – The two biggest rivals that started another war with each other were ATHENS and SPARTA!
The Peloponnesian War! Both Athens and Sparta were powerful city-states: – Athens= powerful navy + strongest sea power in Greece (strong naval fleet) – Sparta= powerful army + strongest land power in Greece (strong infantry)
The Peloponnesian War! Why do you think they went to war with each other? Athens created an alliance with other city-states and formed a group called a league. Athens was the strongest member of the league and soon began to treat other city-states in the league as their subjects (they controlled them!) They both wanted to be in control!
The Peloponnesian War! The Athenians refused to let city-states leave the league Athens became one of the most powerful Greek city-states Sparta, located in the Peloponnesian Peninsula, was not happy that Athens had so much control and power and wanted to stop their growth (they were jealous) So, Sparta gave Athens an ultimatum, which was to free all the cities Athens controlled WAR HAD BEEN DECLARED
The Peloponnesian War To learn more about the story of the war between Athens and Sparta complete the other side of your graphic organizer Supplies needed: pencil + highlighter! But, first, let’s read the directions very carefully! You should be able to tell me who won the Peloponnesian War: _____
Homework Review your notes and graphic organizer from today!! 1.Quiz Wednesday on: – The Persian War – The Peloponnesian War 2.Finish “Peloponnesian War” graphic organizer reading + questions
War Videos! The Persian War Spartan Soldiers Spartan Warriors Thermopylae Child Training Troy behind the scenes