Presentation on theme: "4.3. CLASSICAL GREECE Big Idea: Athens's growing power led to conflicts with Sparta. Write the highlighted vocab. Then get a piece of paper out for."— Presentation transcript:
14.3. CLASSICAL GREECE Big Idea: Athens's growing power led to conflicts with Sparta. Write the highlighted vocab. Then get a piece of paper out for 3.3 notes.As Greece became more powerful and spread into now land they came into contact with other powerful empire like Persia in the East. This would led to the different city-states of Greece coming together to protect themselves from invasion.
2Challenge of PersiaAs Greeks spread they came into conflict with the Persian empire. Ionian states will fall to Persia.Try to revolt and Darius (Persian ruler) sought revenge against Greeks.Persians landed on the plain of Marathon.Outnumber Greeks but Greeks won.Pheidippides ran from Marathon to Athens, (26 miles) shouts victory and dies.Remember that during the dark age of Greece many Greeks had left the mainland and moved into western Asia. Eventually these Greeks “ known as the Ionians” were over taken by the PersiansThey did try to revolt ( assisted by the Athenians) in 499 B.C (5th century BC), but the attempt failed. The leader of the Persians Darius (Persian king who had created roads throughout his empire and created the immortal army, in chapter two)would never forget this and vowed revenge against the Athenians.He was reminded at each dinner by servant the story of the Athenians so he would not forget his hate of them.In 490 BC(5th cen BC) the Persians landed on Marathon 26 miles from Athens. They were defeated by a much larger army and the news was brought to Athens by a messenger. He ran the full 26 miles none stop and with his last breath he said the Persians were defeated. Then He died. That is why we have marathons today.As a result of this win the Athenians found a found confidence and the Persians were embarrassed and very angery.
3Challenge of Persia continued Xerxes plans to invade Greece. Sparta and Athens work together. Sparta-land and Athens-navy. Spartans at Thermopylae (300) to stop Persians. Ended at Bay of Salamis when Athens defeats the Persians.486 BC Darius dies and Xerxes ( eldest son) becomes Persian monarch. He vowed revenge on for the embarrassment the Athenians had caused and vowed to invade Greece.Greece knew that separated they stood no chance and had to form defensive leagues. Sparta and some other city-states formed land league while the Athenians formed a more powerful navy.About 6 years after becoming king Xerxes invades Greece in 480.Athenians, Spartans, and other Greeks came together for one common cause- keeping Greece free.Greeks tried to hold off the very large Persian forces at the Battle of Thermopylae which the odds were 7,000 and 300 Spartans vs. 180,000 Persians. They held them off for two days but a traitor told of a mountain pass that allowed for the Persians to gain the upper hand.This left an open path toward Athens. The Athenians abandoned their city and. In a near by city the Greek fleet was able to defeat the Persians. A few months later the Greeks formed the largest army known at the time and defeated the Persians completely.
4Athenian EmpireAthens took over leadership of Greek world. Created Delian League which led to Athenian empire. Pericles helped create and expand democracy.After the defeat of the Persians Athens took leadership of the entire Greek world.After the defeat they also formed a defensive alliance against the Persians. Through this alliance they were able to free other Greeks states under Persian control. This alliance is similar to the alliance of the United nations except the UN is more for world peace while the Delain league was to defeat a certain enemy.During this time Athens became a power house and held the treasury of the league. By controlling the league the Athenians created an empire. Pericles was the main force behind this and this time is often referred to as the age of perciles.
5Age of PericlesCreate Direct Democracy so people involved. All males take part. Assembly passed laws, elected public officials and made decisions concerning war and foreign policy.Paid office holders- poor were paid if elected & now could afford to take part.Practiced Ostracism to protect against ambitious politicians.Athens became center of Greek culture. Pericles called Athens the “school of Greece”.Pericles created a direct democracy which increased the involvement of Athenians in the government.Every male citizen played a part in the decision making through mass meetings by voting.The assembly met every ten days and decided what laws to pass and what public officials to elect, war and foreign policy.Poor citizens could also take part by paying officeholders. This meant that public office holders were paid and the poor could afford to hold the position because before they were not paid.A group of ten officials or generals directed policy and could be re-elected. To keep from an overly ambitious leader taking power. ostracism was practiced. The persons name was written on a clay tablet . If named by 6,000 members yu were banned from he city for ten years.
6Athens Daily Life & Economy Had a large number of males with political powerTolerated /protected adult male foreigners.Slaves were common.Economy and SocietyEconomy based largely on farming and trade.Had to import grain so trade was highly important to the economy.Family was important in ancient Athens. Were to produce new citizens.Women were strictly controlled, could not own propertyAt its height Athens had the largest number of people in Greece.If you were a foreign born male you still were protected by the laws and had to help pay for festivals and serve in the military,Almost everyone owned at least one slave except he very poor.Olive oil and wines were exported to other parts of the world-silk roadTrade was very important because of the number of people and lack of fertile land % of Grain was imported from else where to feed to population.Family very important-even slave could be considered family.Family’s main role was to have citizen (children).Women were allowed to take part in religious festivals but were excluded from public life.They had to have a companion if leaving the house.
7Great Peloponnesian War After Persian defeat Greek 2 major camps:Athenian empireSparta and its supporters. Led to warAthens planned to remain behind the city’s protective walls and receive supplies from their colonies and Navy.Spartans surround Athens.Plague broke out in Athens killing 1/3 of its people.Pericles died yet war went on for 25 yrs.Athens ends up losing the war and their empire wasdestroyed. Out of this, came Macedonia to PowerEventually Athens power leads to conflict with other states-SpartaDivided Athens and Sparta/supportersNeither could sand the others political system (Sparta Oligarchy/ Athens direct democracy)Broke out in the Peloponnesian war.Athenians stayed behind their wall (better navy) not better than Spartan son land who surrounded them. Athens hope to get supplies from allies.The first year the Athenians where able to make it but the second a plague broke out killing many including their leader Pericles.Despite this the Athenians fought on for another 25 years.Eventually the Athenian navy was destroyed and Athens walls torn down. Over the next 66 years the Athenians, Spartans and the growing Thebes will continue to fight and not unify Greece. This will eventually lead to them loosing their freedom to the growing power of the Macedonians. ( remember Cleopatra was a Macedonian. Alexander the Great had taken Egypt)
94-3 Review Starting point of Pheidippides’s 26 mile run Marathon Greek city-colonies in Asia Minor united to defeat these invadersPersianAthenian vote of banishmentOstracismIn Athens, by the mid-fifth century B.C., every male citizen did what on all major issues?VotedThe Persian monarchXerxes
104-3 ReviewAfter losing the battle of Thermopylae to the Persians, the Athenians abandoned what?Their cityNot all residents were citizens, Athens took leadership of the Greek world, and office holders were paid all during what Greek period?During the age of PericlesAthenian defensive alliance?Delian LeagueHeight of Athenian power and brilliance was called what ?Age of PericlesIn 479 B.C, a large, unified Greek army defeated who?ThePersians