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Chapter 7:Psychosocial Development Theories explaining psychosocial development during the first two years of life Psychoanalytic Erikson Epigentic Attachment.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7:Psychosocial Development Theories explaining psychosocial development during the first two years of life Psychoanalytic Erikson Epigentic Attachment."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7:Psychosocial Development Theories explaining psychosocial development during the first two years of life Psychoanalytic Erikson Epigentic Attachment theory

2 Freud: Oral and Anal Stages Oral Stage—1st stage, where infant obtains pleasure through sucking and biting Anal Stage—2nd stage, where anus becomes main source of gratification, i.e., bowel movements and the control of them

3 1st Stage—Trust vs. Mistrust –basic needs need to be met with consistency, continuity, and sameness 2nd Stage—Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt –basic desire to gain self-rule over their own actions and bodies and to feel ashamed if it doesn’t happen Erikson: Trust and Autonomy

4 Through their interactions with others, children develop working models. Working model—set of assumptions used to organize perceptions and experiences

5 Epigenetic Theory Each child is born with a genetic predisposition to develop certain traits that affect emotional development Temperament—“constitutionally based individual differences in emotion, motor, and attentional reactivity and self- regulation.” Three types of temperament Goodness of fit

6 Research on Temperament: Nine Characteristics activity level, rhythmicity, approach- withdrawal Adaptability, intensity of reaction threshold of responsiveness quality of mood, distractibility attention span

7 Enduring emotional connection –Proximity-seeking behaviors –Contact-maintaining behaviors Three types of attachments –Secure –Insecure-ambivalent –Insecure-avoidant –Disorganized Attachment

8 Measuring Attachment Strange Situation—lab procedure to measure attachment; observed are –exploration of the toys (caregiver present) –reaction to caregiver’s departure –reaction to caregiver’s return

9 Secure attachment Explores freely using the care-giver as the base May be distressed at separation Always greets the care-giver in a warm way on return

10 Insecure ambivalent Resists active exploration Preoccupied with care-giver Shows separation anxiety Resists as well as wants contact with care-giver on reunion

11 Insecure-avoidant Explores freely and shows no unconcern for the care-giver’s presence. On reunion, ignores or actively avoids the presence of the care-giver

12 Disorganized Does not show any coherency in behavior. Frozen or trance-like behavior May move in slow motion or stereotyped behavior

13 Emotional Development in Infancy In the first 2 years of emotional development, infants progress from simple reactions to complex patterns of social awareness

14 The First Year Newborns’ first discernable emotions –distress –Contentment Later emotions (after first weeks) –anger –fear, expressed clearly by stranger wariness and separation anxiety

15 The Second Year New emotions appear –pride –shame –embarrassment –guilt

16 Self-Awareness Foundation for emotional growth –realization of individual distinctions At about 5 months begin developing a sense of self apart from mother months the “Me-self” –rouge experiment

17 Pride and Shame Self-awareness becomes linked with self-concept early on Negative comments more likely to lead to less pride or shame Own pride can be more compelling than parental approval

18 Social connections help us understand human emotions Social referencing The Development of Social Bonds


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