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The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College The Developing Person Through Childhood.

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Presentation on theme: "The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College The Developing Person Through Childhood."— Presentation transcript:

1 The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development Slides prepared by Kate Byerwalter, Ph.D., Grand Rapids Community College The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence by Kathleen Stassen Berger Chapter 7 Seventh Edition

2 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 What does “psychosocial” mean? Psychosocial development is the combination of emotional and social development. During infancy, interactions with sensitive, responsive caregivers foster psychosocial development.

3 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 The First Year  At birth: distress and contentment  Social smile appears around 6 weeks  Anger (as early as 4 months)  Fear Stranger wariness Separation anxiety Emotional Development in Infancy

4 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Can anyone relate to this one? JOURNAL-COURIER / TIFFANY HERMON / THE IMAGE WORKS

5 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 The Second Year  Fear and anger, laughing and crying become more discriminating  New emotions appear: pride, shame, embarrassment, guilt These emotions require a sense of self Dot-of-rouge experiment Emotional Development in Infancy (cont.)

6 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7

7 Self Awareness The realization that one is a unique person separate from others Emerges around months  Measured by reaction to dot of rouge on face  Is the prerequisite for pride, guilt, shame, embarrassment, jealousy, empathy

8 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Make it Real: Pride and Shame Have you ever heard a caregiver “put down” a young child? Explain. In what specific ways can caregivers foster a young child’s sense of pride? Make a list.

9 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Pride and Shame “It seems that building self-esteem results not from praising young children, but from enabling them to accomplish things that make them feel proud.” (Berger, 2005)

10 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Theories about Caregiving There are several theories of how the interaction between caregiver and infant shapes the infant’s behavior, personality, and relationships with others.

11 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Freud believed that conflicts during the oral and anal stages shaped the infant’s later personality. Example: Too strict toilet training may lead to an anal retentive personality. Psychoanalytic Theory

12 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Erik Erikson’s First Two Psychosocial Stages Trust vs. Mistrust: quality of care in the first year shapes the infant’s view of the consistency and predictability of the world Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt = basic need to gain self-rule or feel ashamed that it doesn’t happen

13 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Behaviorism Infant’s emotions and personality are molded as parents reinforce or punish child’s spontaneous behavior. Social referencing strengthens learning by observation.

14 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Cognitive Theory Cognitive Theory states that infants form a concept of what to expect from people. The result is a working model, a set of assumptions about relationships. Example: An infant learns to expect that people can be trusted (or not).

15 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Epigenetic Theory Epigenetic theory holds that child-rearing practices shape inborn predispositions. Example: A “naturally” fearful infant becomes less fearful in the context of a supportive parent who encourages bravery.

16 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Temperament: An Example Of Epigenetic Theory Temperamental traits originate in one’s genes, but are influenced by experience. Examples: Infants differ in their reactions to new situations (fearful or bold); some infants cry easily, others seem “born tough”.

17 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Temperament (cont.) CORROON AND COMPANY / MONKMEYER

18 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Measuring Temperament The NYLS relied on parent reports and direct observations to categorize infants as:  EASY (40%)  SLOW TO WARM UP (15%)  DIFFICULT (10%)  HARD TO CLASSIFY (35%)

19 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Temperament and Caregiving It is important to appreciate each child’s unique temperament. Goodness of fit: the match between the child’s temperament and the environment  This is especially important for a child with a difficult temperament

20 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7

21 Sociocultural Theory Sociocultural theory places a strong emphasis on the role of the entire social context on infant development. Ethnotheory states that child-rearing practices (e.g., co-sleeping or not) are embedded within each culture or ethnic group.

22 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Make it Real: Ethnotheory The text describes the reaction of Mayan parents to their 18-month-old son’s refusal to wear pants; this is contrasted to how Western parents might react. After reading the passage, think about your own reaction. How much are your thoughts influenced by your culture?

23 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Proximal and Distal Parenting A study of West African and Greek parents found differences in infant-caregiver play. West African mothers were more likely to use proximal parenting (keeping the infant physically near), whereas Greek parents used distal parenting (physically distant).

24 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Proximal and Distal Parenting (cont). The researchers found that proximal parenting at 3 months predicted more compliant behavior at 1½ yrs; whereas distal parenting predicted greater self- recognition (a sign of independence).

25 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 The Development of Social Bonds Synchrony: coordinated interaction between caregiver and infant that starts the process of attachment MYRLEEN FERGUSON CATE / PHOTO EDIT

26 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Early Emotional Responses Interactions between caregiver and infant are crucial for emotional development (i.e., synchrony). Still face technique = studying synchrony by assessing infant’s reaction when caregiver halts synchronous behavior…(infants don’t like it!).

27 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Attachment Attachment is a close emotional bond between infant and caregiver(s) that develops gradually over the first year of life.

28 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Signs of Attachment It is easy to know if a parent is attached to an infant (they pull out the wallet full of pictures, talk lovingly about the infant, etc.). But how do we know how the infant feels about the parent?

29 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Signs of Attachment Infants show their desire to be with a caregiver through: contact-maintaining behaviors (e.g., smile, hold on to person), and proximity-seeking behaviors (e.g., crawl toward person).

30 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Measuring Attachment Mary Ainsworth measured attachment through the “Strange Situation”  Performed when infant is around 1 year old  Results have correlated with child outcomes later in life

31 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Measuring Attachment Strange Situation is a laboratory procedure assessing:  Exploration of the toys  Reaction to caregiver’s departure  Reaction to caregiver’s return

32 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7

33 Categories of Attachment Secure Attachment =  Yes, explore toys  May cry upon caregiver leaving  Happy to see caregiver return Long-term outcomes are positive (e.g., good social skills, well-liked, happy kids)

34 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Categories of Attachment Insecure-Resistant Attachment:  Little to no exploration of toys  Cry when caregiver leaves  Remains upset (cry/anger) upon caregiver’s return Long-term outcomes include dependence (especially for girls) or aggression (especially for boys)

35 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Categories of Attachment Insecure Avoidant Attachment  Yes, explores the toys  Doesn’t cry when caregiver turns  Avoids or ignores caregiver upon return

36 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Attachment Categories Disorganized Attachment  Infant demonstrates bizarre, inconsistent behavior toward the parent  Infants in this category may have been abused or neglected  Outcomes for them are often negative

37 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7

38 Secure Attachment is Likely When: The parent is:  sensitive to child’s needs  responsive to signals  engages in infant-caregiver play  not overly stressed And when the infant is “easy”

39 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Attachment Over Time An infant can change attachment status over time, especially if the social setting changes.  Examples: divorce, abuse, remarriage Overall, secure attachment in infancy is associated with positive outcomes later in life.

40 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Make it Real: Attachment Think of someone you know who has difficulty in relationships (could be you). How might early attachment experiences influenced his or her ability to form connections with others?

41 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Looking to others for cues for how to feel, especially in a new situation  Example: If a caregiver shows fear of a situation, the infant likely will too! This shows that emotions can be learned Social Referencing

42 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Referencing Mothers A study by Kochanska (2001) found that in general, infants and toddlers obey their mother’s requests, especially if the mother was convincing in her tone and choice of words. (Yes, toddlers do have the ability to obey!)

43 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Referencing Fathers Fathers today spend considerable time with their children, and research is just beginning to document the importance of this relationship.

44 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Make it real: Referencing Fathers In what ways do you think fathers interact with infants differently than mothers?

45 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Referencing Fathers (cont.) Fathers tend to:  Be more encouraging of infant exploration  Engage in more physical, noisy, emotional play  Engage in teasing Infants tend to:  Comply with father’s commands more often

46 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Infant Day Care As more infants spend time in nonparental care, the question of the effects of that care on child development continues to be debated. The most comprehensive study to date is conducted by the NICHD Early Child Care Research Network

47 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Types of Infant Day Care Family day care: children cared for in home of a paid caregiver Center day care: several paid providers care for children Our textbook author suggests that center care may be the best option, but even licensed centers vary in quality!

48 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7

49 Some Results of the NICHD Study Even 40 hours a week of infant child care had considerable less influence than the mother-infant relationship on child outcomes. Secure attachment was just as likely among infants in center care as those raised at home.

50 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 More Results Quality of child care is important. How time is spent when the infant is home is important as well.

51 Berger: The Developing Person Through Childhood and Adolescence, 7th Edition, Chapter 7 Infant Day Care…Who can afford it? Infant day care is often more expensive than care for a toddler or preschooler. Higher-income homes are more likely to use center care, due to the cost. Some countries (not the U.S.) have government funded care for all children.


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