Presentation on theme: "Emotional Development in Infancy"— Presentation transcript:
1Emotional Development in Infancy Specific EmotionsAt first there is pleasure and painCuriosity is evidentsocial smiles are evoked by a human face, normally evident about 6 weeks after birthanger is evident at 6 monthsSadness is presented as withdrawal and an increased level of stress hormone.
2Emotional Development in Infancy Fearfully formed fear in response to some person, thing, or situation emerges at about 9 monthsstranger wariness… infant no longer smiles at any friendly faces, and cries if an unfamiliar person moves to close, too quicklyseparation anxiety… expressed in tears, dismay, or anger when a familiar caregiver leaves
3Emotional Development in Infancy separation anxiety is normal at age 1intensifies by age 2, and usually subsides after that1-year-olds fear not just strangers but also anything unexpectedemotions that emerge in the first month strengthen at about age 1
4Emotional Development New emotions appear toward the end of the end yearPride, shame, embarassment and guilt.Need awareness of other people.
5Emotional Development in Infancy Self Awareness... emotional growth that has the infant realizing that his or her body, mine,and actions are separate from thoseof other peoplearound age 1 an emerging sense of “me” and “mine”self-recognition emerges at about 18 monthspretending and using first person pronouns also emerges at that time.I, me, mine, myself, my
6Theories About Infant Psychosocial Development Freud: Oral and Anal Stagesthe first year is the oral stagethe mouth is the young infant’s primary source of gratificationthe second year is the anal stagethe infant’s main pleasure comes from the anus… sensual pleasure of bowel movement… the psychological pleasure of controlling them.
7Theories About Infant Psychosocial Development Erikson: Trust and Autonomyfirst psychosocial crisis (trust vs. mistrust)… infants learn basic trust if the world is a secure place where their basic needs (for food, comfort, attention, etc.) are metsecond stage crisis of psychosocial development (autonomy vs. shame and doubt)… toddlers either succeed or fail in gaining a sense of self-rule over their own actions and bodies
8Theories About Infant Psychosocial Development Behaviorismemotions and personality are molded as parents reinforce or punish the child’s spontaneous behaviorsInfants experience social learning… learning by observing othersapparent in families… from giggling to cursing… much like their parents
9Theories About Infant Psychosocial Development Cognitive Theoryholds that thoughts and values determine a person’s perspectivesearly experiences are importantbeliefs, perceptions and memoriesinfants use early relationships to develop a working model for future relationships.a set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences
10Theories About Infant Psychosocial Development Epigenetic Theoryholds that every human characteristic is strongly influenced by each person’s unique genotype… inborn predispositions
11Theories About Infant Psychosocial Development TemperamentInborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-control.Temperament is epigenetic, originating in genes but can be modified by experiences.
12Theories About Infant Psychosocial Development The Parents’ Roleinfant temperament often changes with adult guidanceinteraction between culture influences and inherited traits tend to shape behavior by early childhood.parents need to find a goodness of fitgoodness of fit is a similarity of temperament and values that produces a smooth interaction between an individual and his or her social context, including family, school, and community
13Theories About Infant Psychosocial Development Sociocultural Theory“…human development occurs in a cultural context.”sociocultural theorists argue culture:has a substantial influence on infantshas a major impact on infant-caregiver relationships, thus the development of the infantSo the is question…How much influence does culture have?
14Theories About Infant Psychosocial Development Ethnotheoriesethnotheorya theory that underlies the values and practices of a culture and that becomes apparent through analysis and comparison of those practices, although it is not usually apparent to the people within the culture
15Theories About Infant Psychosocial Development Proximal and Distal Parentingproximal parentingparenting practices that involve close physical contact with the child’s entire body, such as cradling and swingingdistal parentingparenting practices that focus on the intellect more than the body, such as talking with the baby and playing with an object
16The Development of Social Bonds Synchronyis a coordinated interaction between caregiver and infantan exchange in which they respond to each other with split-second timingInfants learn to read others emotionsDevelop skills of social interactionAdults echo infants emotions and try and make them more positiveExperience-expectant
17The Development of Social Bonds AttachmentA lasting emotional bond the one person has with another.Forms in infancya tie that binds them together in space and endures over timeNew, close relationships that arise later in life are influenced by this attachment.
18The Development of Social Bonds Secure and Insecure Attachmentsecure attachmentrelationships in which an infant obtains both comfort and confidence from the presence of his or her caregiverinsecure-avoidant attachmenta pattern of attachment in which an infant avoids connection with the caregiver, as when the infant seems not to care about the caregiver’s presence, departure, or return
19The Development of Social Bonds Secure and Insecure Attachmentinsecure-resistant/ambivalent attachmenta pattern of attachment in which anxiety and uncertainty are evident, as when an infant is very upset at separation from the caregiver and both resists and seeks contact on reuniondisorganized attachmenta type of attachment that is marked by an infant’s inconsistent reactions to the caregiver’s departure and return
20The Development of Social Bonds Secure and Insecure Attachment
21The Development of Social Bonds Measuring Attachmentstrange situationdeveloped by Ainswortha laboratory procedure for measuring attachment by evoking infants’ reaction to stressStranger and caregiver leave and enter playroomReaction to caregiver = attachmentReaction to stranger = matter of temperament
22The Development of Social Bonds Measuring Attachment
23The Development of Social Bonds Insecure Attachment and Social Settingsinfants shift in attachment status between one age and anothermost troubled children may be those who are classified as type D (table 7.4)
24The Development of Social Bonds Social Referencingseeking information about how to react to an unfamiliar ambiguous object or event by observing someone else’s expressions and reactions—that other person becomes a social reference
25The Development of Social Bonds Referencing Mothersmost social referencing occurs with mothersinfants heed their mother’s wishes, expressed in tone and facial expressionMothers tend to be more comforting, protective and cautious.
26The Development of Social Bonds Referencing Fathersincreases in maternal employment have expanded the social references available to infantsfathers now spend considerable time with their childrenFathers tend to be more encouraging than mothersMore fun
27The Development of Social Bonds Infant Day Caremore than ½ of all 1-year-olds in the U.S. are in “regular scheduled” nonmaternal carefamily day carechild care that occurs in another caregiver’s home—usually the caregiver is paid at a lower rate than in center care, and usually one person shares of several children of various agescenter day carechild care in a place especially designed for the purpose, where several paid providers care for many children. Usually the children are grouped by age, the day care center is licensed, and providers are trained and certified in child development