1 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV social relationships emotional responding
2 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV BABY RELATIONSHIP DEVELOPMENT What do babies do “socially”? NEWBORNS AND YOUNG BABIES Can express the following basic emotions but theses are not triggered by people, per se, so they are not social DISTRESS JOY SADNESS SURPRISE ANGER FEAR
3 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV BABY RELATIONSHIPS What do babies do “socially”? 6 WEEKS OLD Can express the SOCIAL SMILE (in response to faces) Hi!
4 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV BABY RELATIONSHIPS What do babies do “socially”? 3-4 MONTHS OLD Can express the SOCIAL LAUGH (in response to faces)
5 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV BABY RELATIONSHIPS What do babies do “socially”? 6-14 MONTHS OLD SOME babies develop FEAR OF STRANGERS (depends on their TEMPERAMENT)
6 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV BABY RELATIONSHIPS What do babies do “socially”? 9-14 MONTHS OLD SOME babies develop SEPARATION ANXIETY (this also depends on their TEMPERAMENT)
7 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV BABY RELATIONSHIP STAGES What do babies do “socially”? 8+ MONTHS OLD Typical babies begin showing SOCIAL REFERENCING Next slide has a study….
8 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV SOCIAL REFERENCING STUDY Sorce, Emde, Campos, & Klinnert (1985) Used the VISUAL CLIFF to see if babies would cross if Mom “said” it was alright. When mom smiled, 75% of babies crossed! When mom frowned, NONE of the babies crossed over.
9 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV SOCIAL REFERENCING STUDY Gewirtz, Pelaez-Nogueras, Diaz, & Villate (1990) Infants sat in front of puppet theater 8 boxes of objects was accessible to Mom to choose stimuli Each trial consisted of draping a white cloth over the object and showing it in the puppet theater Next, the infants looked at the covered object and then their mother….
10 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV Moms were trained to provide two different cues but with neutral facial expressions when baby looked at them: (a) closed fist on nose, or (b) open palms to cheeks Then baby looked at now UNCOVERED object and were allowed to reach for it In baseline, no programmed consequences (baby’s reached equally often regardless of cue In treatment – (a) If baby reached for object after closed fist on nose, loud sounds occurred (baby’s stopped reaching after this cue) – (b) If baby reached for object after open palms to cheeks, baby music sounded (baby’s DID reach after this cue)
11 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV Shows “social referencing” can be brought under stimulus control Baby learned to “listen” to mommy when she indicated “don’t reach” versus “ok to reach” the object. Why did the researchers use the initially neutral cues as opposed to having the Mom smile or frown to signal “ok” or “not ok”?
12 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV What do babies do “socially”? 12 MONTHS OLD Typical babies begin showing “SELF-AWARENESS” DOT ON NOSE STUDY
13 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV “ATTACHMENT” What is it? Is it a two-way relationship? Does it help development? How is it measured? (see next…)
14 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV “ATTACHMENT” How is it measured? -by PROXIMITY -by EMOTIONAL REACTION Where is it measured? MARY AINSWORTH’S “STRANGE SITUATION”
15 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV ATTACHMENT TYPES SECURE - 70% of infants INSECURE AVOIDANT – 15-20% of infants - ignores or avoids parents across the board INSECURE RESISTANT – 10% of infants - stays close to parents when in room but rebuffs parents when they return after leaving INSECURE DISORGANIZED – 1-5%? of infants - infant seems dazed and upset by parents; likely result of maltreatment
16 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV WHAT AFFECTS ATTACHMENT? Sensitivity to infant needs (called GOODNESS OF FIT) Infant temperament (more later…) Infant physical disabilities Parent marital satisfaction Psychological stability of parents Economic stress
17 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV WHY SHOULD WE CARE ABOUT ATTACHMENT? SECURE attachment is associated with the following: Higher IQ Better problem solving skills Better child-child social relationships (friends!) More independent
18 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV TEMPERAMENT - A BABY’S INBORN DISPOSITION - A BABY’S QUALITY OF EMOTIONAL REACTIONS - CHESS & THOMAS’S NEW YORK LONGITUDINAL STUDY - Next… Darn.
19 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV TEMPERAMENT Chess and Thomas recorded 4 broad temperament categories: EASY (40%) SLOW TO WARM UP (15%) DIFFICULT (10%) AVERAGE (35%) – seems to be a combination of other categories
20 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV TEMPERAMENT Chess and Thomas also described 9 specific temperament types: 1. Activity level 2. Rhythmicity 3. Approach/withdrawal 4. Adaptability 5. (more on next slide…)
21 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV TEMPERAMENT Chess and Thomas’s 9 specific temperament types: 5. Reaction intensity 6. Responsiveness threshold 7. Mood quality 8. Distractibility 9. Attention span
22 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV PERSONALITY What is it? Differences from temperament? When does a baby “have” a personality? Where does it come from?
23 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV PERSONALITY Evidence of nature / nurture on personality? Where does it come from? (theories?) see next…
24 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV PERSONALITY – FREUD’S VIEW Driven by psychosexual needs (LIBIDO) Oral stage (first year) – yields what personality? Anal stage (second year) – yields what personality?
25 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV PERSONALITY – ERICKSON Driven by self-identity needs during “crises” Trust vs. mistrust (first year and a half) – yields what personality? Definitely related to attachment! Autonomy vs. shame & doubt (2nd-3rd year) – yields what personality?
26 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV PERSONALITY BEHAVIORAL LEARNING (Watson; Skinner) Shaped by environmental consequences for actions (ex. A “neat” child is reinforced with parental praise) Child learns to act a certain way because it has yielded desirable consequences Child learns to NOT act a certain way because it has yielded UNdesirable consequences “personality” is more related to learning to behave a certain way in a certain situation
27 SOCIAL & EMOTIONAL DEV PERSONALITY SOCIAL LEARNING (Bandura) Some of personality is learned through IMITATION (ex. An “aggressive”child may have become that way through observation and imitation of an aggressive father.) Remember this is further affected by consequences for imitation