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2 1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. Emotional Development 4. Theories about Infant Socioemotional Development 5. The Development of Social Bonds.

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Presentation on theme: "2 1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. Emotional Development 4. Theories about Infant Socioemotional Development 5. The Development of Social Bonds."— Presentation transcript:


2 2 1. Introduction 2. Fact or Fiction? 3. Emotional Development 4. Theories about Infant Socioemotional Development 5. The Development of Social Bonds 6. Closing Thoughts

3 Introduction 3 [Video: Infancy – Socioemotional Development Introduction]

4 Fact or Fiction?FictionFact 1. Infant fear, as expressed in stranger wariness, signals abnormal behavior. 2. In part because of inborn temperamental characteristics, some children are more difficult to raise and harder to live with. 3. Attachment patterns established in infancy almost never change. 4. High-quality day care, even during the infants first year, does not lead to negative developmental outcomes. Socioemotional Development 4

5 Specific Emotions Click to play video: Stranger Fear Click to play video: Separation Anxiety Click to play video: The Emergence of Empathy 6 weeks - social smile 3 months- laughter; curiosity 4 months - full, responsive smiles Infant Emotions Happy or Content Fearful Angry or Sad Pride or Shame 4-8 months - anger Angry - healthy response to frustration Sadness - indicates withdrawal 9-14 months - with strangers (stranger wariness; separation anxiety) 12 months - fear of unexpected sights and sounds 18 monthsself-awareness; pride; shame; embarrassment How do infants express emotions? 5

6 Specific Emotions 6 [Video: Stranger Fear]

7 Specific Emotions 7 [Video: Separation Anxiety]

8 Specific Emotions 8 [Video: The Emergence of Empathy]

9 Self-Awareness 9 months baby 20 months baby How do younger and older infants react to the rouge test? self-awareness: Realization that one is a distinct individual. 9

10 Self-Awareness 10 [Video: Developing Self-Awareness]

11 Temperament Inhibited (fearful) at 4 months and...Positive (exuberant) at 4 months and... Do Babies Temperaments Change? temperament: Inborn differences between one person and another in emotions, activity, and self-regulation. Fearful at 9,14,24 and 48 months Positive (every later time) Variable (sometimes fearful, sometimes not) Fearful (every later time) Positive at 9,14,24 and 48 months Variable (sometimes fearful, sometimes not) 42% 44% 12% 5% 15% 80% 11

12 Temperament 12 [Video: Stability of Behavior]

13 What are the two main psychoanalytical views of stages in infancy? Psychoanalytical Theory Developmental crises involve trust versus mistrust, followed by autonomy versus shame and doubt! Sigmund Freud Erik Erikson Sexual interest and pleasure expressed first in the oral stage, then the anal stage! 13

14 Behaviorism social learning: Learning by observing othersboth what they do and how other people react to their behavior. How do children learn aggression? Experimental Group Control Group Watched model act aggressively toward doll Did not watch the model Experienced frustration Was placed in room with doll Displayed highly aggressive behavior imitating models actions Displayed less aggression, mainly limited to punching doll with fists 14

15 Behaviorism 15 [Video: Banduras Bobo Doll Study ]

16 Cognitive Theory working model: In cognitive theory, a set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences. How do early relationships help form a persons later assumptions? 16

17 INFANTS IN RURAL CAMEROON AND URBAN GREECE CameroonAthens, Greece I.Infantmother play at 3 months Percent of time held by mother100%31% Percent of time playing with objects3%40% I.Toddler behavior at 18 months Self-recognition3%68% Immediate compliance with request72%2% Source: Adapted from Keller et al., 2004 Sociocultural Theory proximal parenting: Caregiving practices that involve being physically close to a baby, with frequent holding and touching. distal parenting: Caregiving practices that involve remaining distant from a baby, providing toys, food, and face-to-face communication with minimal holding and touching. How does infant behavior in rural Cameroon and urban Greece compare? 17

18 Synchrony synchrony: A coordinated, rapid, and smooth exchange of responses between a caregiver and an infant. How do infants learn of others emotions? 18

19 PATTERNS OF INFANT ATTACHMENT Type Name of PatternIn Play RoomMother LeavesMother Returns Toddlers in Category (%) A Insecure-avoidantChild plays happily Child continues playing Child ignores her10-20 B SecureChild plays happily Child pauses, is not as happy Child welcomes her, returns to play 50-70 C Insecure- resistant/ambivalent Child clings, is preoccupied with mother Child is unhappy, may stop playing Child is angry; may cry, hit mother, cling 10-20 D DisorganizedChild is cautious Child may stare or yell; looks scared, confused Child acts oddlymay scream, hit self, throw things 5-10 Attachment attachment: According to Ainsworth, an affectional tie that an infant forms with a caregiver. What are patterns of infant attachment? 19

20 Attachment 20 [Video: Interview with Gilda Morelli]

21 Social Referencing social referencing: Seeking information about how to react to an unfamiliar or ambiguous object or event by observing someone elses expressions and reactions. 21

22 Social Referencing 22 [Video: Social Referencing]

23 Infant Day Care center day care: Child care that occurs in a place especially designed for the purpose, where several paid adults care for many children. How much do different countries use center-based care for infants? Most use of center- based infant care In-between use of center-based infant care Less use of center- based infant care France Central America Latin America India Ethiopia Israel China Sweden North America 23

24 Infant Day Care 24 [Video: Best Practices in Child Care: Continuity of Care]

25 If you were to give advice to a friend with a newborn, what would you tell him about the keys to creating a strong social bond with his infant? Closing Thoughts 25


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