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Chapter 7: The Challenge of Christendom:Church and Empire in Tension

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7: The Challenge of Christendom:Church and Empire in Tension"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 7: The Challenge of Christendom:Church and Empire in Tension

2 5 major concepts: #1 Two English Sources of Light:
Benedictine monks Boniface and Bede Boniface>conversions Boniface>crowning a king foreshadows church/state entanglements. Bede> stays in one monastery> study, teaching, writing.

3 Church and State entangled:#2
Papal States!> must be protected! Pushes church into political and worldly affairs Charlemagne> crowned by a pope! >Holy Roman Emperor> Helps but also controls the church

4 A Feudal Way of Life: #3 Ineffective leaders and the death of Charlemagne leaves a splintered empire, A new way of life! > Feudalism, a political system based on land ownership. Order, protection. Monasteries had vast land holdings.

5 Other Peoples Turn Christian
Vikings have invaded and now settle in Europe. Intermarriages, treaties, missionaries lead to conversions among the Vikings Brothers and missionaries in the East: Cyril and Methodius.

6 #5 Royal Pains for the Church:
Civil interference in church affairs and corruption among church officials. Lay leaders appointing Church leaders! Buying and Selling of Church positions! German emperors control the Papacy! Hope comes from the monks at Cluny!

7 The High Middle Ages.Chapter 8
The age of Christendom. The Catholic Church and European Society were One…

8 Chapter 8: the High Middle Ages: 5 concepts:
# 1 A New World in the Making. #2 Church Institutions Flourish. #3 A Church Divided, Zeal Misguided #4 Heresy and Inquisition. #5 Mendicant Friars.

9 #1 A New World in the Making
The rise of cities! More food produced by methods developed by monasteries. More food> more people> towns grow. Cathedrals draw more people to towns England, France power in kings.

10 Trade and Crafts With the surplus of people, towns spring up.
Population centers=jobs Skilled workers came to live and labor where there was a market for their talents Craft workers form guilds: Learn your trade, fair prices, chief employer was the Church

11 Nations and Kings Kings grow more powerful,centralize power
England and France begin to emerge as nations> large territory having independent status and government< From regional chief to powerful national leader.

12 #2 Church Institutions Flourish
Strong papacy Forbids lay investiture Excommunicates an emperor Establishes the college of cardinals Romanesque and Gothic cathedrals Rise of universities

13 A reforming Papacy and Clergy
Problem/Lay Investiture= a high ranking lay person ( monarch, count, lord) appoints bishops or abbots and “investing” them with power and requiring their loyalty. Pope Gregory VII wants to free the church from such control.

14 Pope Gregory VII Confronts Emperor Henry IV over the question of Lay Investiture Gregory issues the “Dictatus Papae” ( Dictates of the Pope) >Only Popes may depose bishops >No one an judge the pope and >The pope may depose emperors and release vassal from their loyalty to a sinful emperor.

15 Tension Henry IV objected to the Dictates and demanded Gregory give up the Papacy. Gregory excommunicates Henry AND declared that Henry’s subjects did not need obey him any longer ( a political danger for Henry..his own nobles will fight for the throne) >>>>>Henry Repents(very dramatically)

16 Finally……. In 1122 Concordat of Worms…The emperor agreed that rulers would no longer have the right to appoint bishops;all bishops would be elected and consecrated by church authority

17 Who elects the Pope??? At one time ruling Roman families,
Pope Nicholas II creates the college of cardinals to elect the pope (1059)

18 Reform for Priests Pope Innocent III
“the greatest pope of the Middle Ages Fourth Lateran Council.1215 No more simony ( buying and selling church positions to highest bidder) Papal permission needed for new saints, relics or religious orders Set number of sacraments at 7

19 Reform for Priests Warned priests not to reveal sins confessed
Declared officially the belief in transubstantiation. Priests were to be trained in the cathedral schools

20 #3 A Church Divided, Zeal Misguided
1054 official split between the Eastern and Western churches. The crusades are launched by Pope Urban II> hope to regain the Holy Land from the Saracen Muslims> 1096 Crusades degenerate into military and moral failure.

21 #4 Heresy and Inquisition
Albigensian heresy> all material things are evil> arises out of church materialism and corruption Heresy seen as religious error and political treason. Inquisition>”inquiry”. Civil trial until 1150> Guilty handed over to civil authorities for punishment. Papal Inquisition>1232> run from Rome, systematic

22 #5 Mendicant Friars Mendicant > “begging” orders renewed the Gospel spirit of poverty and simplicity within the church. Dominic de Guzman founder of the Order of Preachers>Dominicans> scholars,teachers

23 St. Dominic Dominic de Guzman Pope Honorius III Wrote:
“Let those invincible Athletes of Christ, armed With the shield of faith And the helmet of Salvation,continue ever,in season and out of season, despite all hindrances and every tribulation to preach the divine word.”

24 St. Francis 1182-1226 Wealthy At 20 renounces all worldly goods
Wanders, preaches Cares for the poor. Loved nature and saw the creator in creation.

25 St. Francis He called His followers “Friars Minor” St. Clare,
Followed in his footsteps. “Poor Clares”

26 Mt 10: 7-10 And as you go, proclaim that the kingdom of God is close at hand. Cure the sick, raise the dead, cleanse the lepers, cast out devils. You received without charge, give without charge. Provide yourselves with no gold or silver, not even with a few coppers for your purses, with no haversack for the journey or spare tunic or footwear or staff, for the workman deserves his keep

27 St. Francis Having read MT 10:7-10 Do you admire Francis’s devotion to
absolute poverty Why or why not? Is it practical today? Explain What can we learn from Francis?

28 Rise of the Medieval Papacy
2 reasons for Christianity’s influence on the Middle Ages. Strong papacy that provided leadership A sense of unity in the area we call Europe.

29 Map Where’s The H.R.E.? Where are the Papal states? Where is Rome?

30 The Political scene Charlemagne crowned by Leo III at Christmas mass in the year 800. Hope was born that Charlemagne would unite the Western part of the old empire and work closely with the church. Notice: It was the Church in the person of Pope Leo III who gave the power to rule the State, in the person of Charlemagne

31 A Brighter Day? Christianity had arrived and a New empire was established where the old one once stood. From Roman Empire to HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE And Charlemagne,a Christian, is the emperor.

32 Conversion by the sword
In one day Charlemagne put to death 4,500 Saxons who resisted being baptized. Forced conversions were Used to unify empires

33 The Saxon conversion After defeat the remaining warriors
were baptized. Missionaries were Later sent to explain The faith

34 Pluses and Minuses +,-,+,-,+,-
Charlemagne emphasized education Appoints priests, monks,bishops to positions in government The best teachers came to his palace school Encouraged Benedictine monasteries

35 + and -’s Charlem. Directs the church’s activities, appointing bishops, sending them around the empire. Promotes Latin liturgy as in Rome Latin = language of educated people Will unify liturgical practice.

36 Ashes to ashes,dust to dust
Charlemagne’s empire is not long lived. After his death the empire is divided among his grandsons. Centuries later these territories become known as France and Germany.

37 Darkness descends There were new barbarian invasions
Vikings raided England The Moslems renewed their attacks, even making a successful raid on Rome. Out of this chaos developed a new political system, FEUDALISM


39 The Church and Feudalism
The church was closely tied with Feudalism because of the lands it owned. Bishops became more involved in the daily running of the land This made them more like secular rulers rather than spiritual leaders.

40 Power and Problems in the Papacy
Lay Investiture: Secular leaders appoint church leaders. Simony: The selling of Church positions to the highest bidder.

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