Presentation on theme: "Chapter 7: The Challenge of Christendom:Church and Empire in Tension"— Presentation transcript:
1Chapter 7: The Challenge of Christendom:Church and Empire in Tension Pages
25 major concepts: #1 Two English Sources of Light: Benedictine monks Boniface and BedeBoniface>conversionsBoniface>crowning a king foreshadows church/state entanglements.Bede> stays in one monastery> study, teaching, writing.
3Church and State entangled:#2 Papal States!> must be protected!Pushes church into political and worldly affairsCharlemagne> crowned by a pope! >Holy Roman Emperor> Helps but also controls the church
4A Feudal Way of Life: #3Ineffective leaders and the death of Charlemagne leaves a splintered empire,A new way of life! > Feudalism, a political system based on land ownership. Order, protection.Monasteries had vast land holdings.
5Other Peoples Turn Christian Vikings have invaded and now settle in Europe. Intermarriages, treaties, missionaries lead to conversions among the VikingsBrothers and missionaries in the East:Cyril and Methodius.
6#5 Royal Pains for the Church: Civil interference in church affairs and corruption among church officials.Lay leaders appointing Church leaders!Buying and Selling of Church positions!German emperors control the Papacy!Hope comes from the monks at Cluny!
7The High Middle Ages.Chapter 8 The age ofChristendom.The CatholicChurch andEuropeanSociety wereOne…
8Chapter 8: the High Middle Ages: 5 concepts: # 1 A New World in the Making.#2 Church Institutions Flourish.#3 A Church Divided, Zeal Misguided#4 Heresy and Inquisition.#5 Mendicant Friars.
9#1 A New World in the Making The rise of cities!More food produced by methods developed by monasteries.More food> more people> towns grow.Cathedrals draw more people to townsEngland, France power in kings.
10Trade and Crafts With the surplus of people, towns spring up. Population centers=jobsSkilled workers came to live and labor where there was a market for their talentsCraft workers form guilds:Learn your trade, fair prices, chief employer was the Church
11Nations and Kings Kings grow more powerful,centralize power England and France begin to emerge as nations> large territory having independent status and government<From regional chief to powerful national leader.
12#2 Church Institutions Flourish Strong papacyForbids lay investitureExcommunicates an emperorEstablishes the college of cardinalsRomanesque and Gothic cathedralsRise of universities
13A reforming Papacy and Clergy Problem/Lay Investiture= a high ranking lay person ( monarch, count, lord) appoints bishops or abbots and “investing” them with power and requiring their loyalty.Pope Gregory VII wants to free the church from such control.
14Pope Gregory VIIConfronts Emperor Henry IV over the question of Lay InvestitureGregory issues the “Dictatus Papae”( Dictates of the Pope)>Only Popes may depose bishops>No one an judge the pope and>The pope may depose emperors and release vassal from their loyalty to a sinful emperor.
15TensionHenry IV objected to the Dictates and demanded Gregory give up the Papacy.Gregory excommunicates Henry AND declared that Henry’s subjects did not need obey him any longer( a political danger for Henry..his own nobles will fight for the throne)>>>>>Henry Repents(very dramatically)
16Finally…….In 1122Concordat of Worms…The emperor agreed that rulers would no longer have the right to appoint bishops;all bishops would be elected and consecrated by church authority
17Who elects the Pope??? At one time ruling Roman families, Pope Nicholas II creates the college of cardinals to elect the pope (1059)
18Reform for Priests Pope Innocent III “the greatest pope of the Middle AgesFourth Lateran Council.1215No more simony ( buying and selling church positions to highest bidder)Papal permission needed for new saints, relics or religious ordersSet number of sacraments at 7
19Reform for Priests Warned priests not to reveal sins confessed Declared officially the belief in transubstantiation.Priests were to be trained in the cathedral schools
20#3 A Church Divided, Zeal Misguided 1054 official split between the Eastern and Western churches.The crusades are launched by Pope Urban II> hope to regain the Holy Land from the Saracen Muslims> 1096Crusades degenerate into military and moral failure.
21#4 Heresy and Inquisition Albigensian heresy> all material things are evil> arises out of church materialism and corruptionHeresy seen as religious error and political treason.Inquisition>”inquiry”. Civil trial until 1150> Guilty handed over to civil authorities for punishment.Papal Inquisition>1232> run from Rome, systematic
22#5 Mendicant FriarsMendicant > “begging” orders renewed the Gospel spirit of poverty and simplicity within the church.Dominic de Guzman founder of the Order of Preachers>Dominicans> scholars,teachers
23St. Dominic Dominic de Guzman Pope Honorius III Wrote: “Let those invincibleAthletes of Christ, armedWith the shield of faithAnd the helmet ofSalvation,continueever,in seasonand out of season, despite allhindrances and everytribulation to preach thedivine word.”
24St. Francis 1182-1226 Wealthy At 20 renounces all worldly goods Wanders, preachesCares for the poor.Loved nature and sawthe creator in creation.
25St. Francis He called His followers “Friars Minor” St. Clare, Followed in hisfootsteps.“Poor Clares”
26Mt 10: 7-10And as you go, proclaim that the kingdom of God is close at hand. Cure the sick, raise the dead, cleanse the lepers, cast out devils. You received without charge, give without charge. Provide yourselves with no gold or silver, not even with a few coppers for your purses, with no haversack for the journey or spare tunic or footwear or staff, for the workman deserves his keep
27St. Francis Having read MT 10:7-10 Do you admire Francis’s devotion to absolute povertyWhy or why not?Is it practical today?ExplainWhat can we learn fromFrancis?
28Rise of the Medieval Papacy 2 reasons for Christianity’s influence on the Middle Ages.Strong papacy that provided leadershipA sense of unity in the area we call Europe.
29Map Where’s The H.R.E.? Where are the Papal states? Where is Rome? Constantinople?
30The Political sceneCharlemagne crowned by Leo III at Christmas mass in the year 800.Hope was born that Charlemagne would unite the Western part of the old empire and work closely with the church.Notice: It was the Church in the person of Pope Leo III who gave the power to rule the State, in the person of Charlemagne
31A Brighter Day?Christianity had arrived and a New empire was established where theold one once stood.From Roman Empire toHOLY ROMAN EMPIREAnd Charlemagne,a Christian,is the emperor.
32Conversion by the sword In one day Charlemagneput to death 4,500 Saxonswho resisted being baptized.Forced conversions wereUsed to unify empires
33The Saxon conversion After defeat the remaining warriors were baptized.Missionaries wereLater sent to explainThe faith
34Pluses and Minuses +,-,+,-,+,- Charlemagne emphasized educationAppoints priests, monks,bishops to positions in governmentThe best teachers came to his palace schoolEncouraged Benedictine monasteries
35+ and -’sCharlem. Directs the church’s activities, appointing bishops, sending them around the empire.Promotes Latin liturgy as in RomeLatin = language of educated peopleWill unify liturgical practice.
36Ashes to ashes,dust to dust Charlemagne’s empire is not long lived.After his death the empire is divided among his grandsons.Centuries later these territories become known as France and Germany.
37Darkness descends There were new barbarian invasions Vikings raided EnglandThe Moslems renewed their attacks, even making a successful raid on Rome.Out of this chaos developed a new political system, FEUDALISM
39The Church and Feudalism The church was closely tied with Feudalism because of the lands it owned.Bishops became more involved in the daily running of the landThis made them more like secular rulers rather than spiritual leaders.
40Power and Problems in the Papacy Lay Investiture: Secular leaders appoint church leaders.Simony: The selling of Church positions to the highest bidder.