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Middle Ages Political, Religious, Economic developments.

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Presentation on theme: "Middle Ages Political, Religious, Economic developments."— Presentation transcript:

1 Middle Ages Political, Religious, Economic developments

2 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline:

3 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 313: edict of Milan

4 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 313: edict of Milan 325: Council of Nicaea

5 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 313: edict of Milan 325: Council of Nicaea 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths under Alaric

6 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 313: edict of Milan 325: Council of Nicaea 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths under Alaric : St. Augustine : Augustine writes City of God

7 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 313: edict of Milan 325: Council of Nicaea 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths under Alaric : St. Augustine : Augustine writes City of God 451: Council of Chalcedon

8 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 451: Council of Chalcedon : European invasion of Attila the Hun

9 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 451: Council of Chalcedon : European invasion of Attila the Hun 476: Odoacer deposes Romulus Augustulus; rules as “king of the Romans” (fall of the West)

10 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 451: Council of Chalcedon : European invasion of Attila the Hun 476: Odoacer deposes Romulus Augustulus; rules as “king of the Romans” (fall of the West) : Theodoric establishes kingdom of Ostrogoths in Italy

11 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: : Theodoric establishes kingdom of Ostrogoths in Italy 529: St. Benedict founds monastery at Monte Cassino

12 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: : Theodoric establishes kingdom of Ostrogoths in Italy 529: St. Benedict founds monastery at Monte Cassino 533: Justinian codifies Roman law

13 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: : Theodoric establishes kingdom of Ostrogoths in Italy 529: St. Benedict founds monastery at Monte Cassino 533: Justinian codifies Roman law : building of Hagia Sophia

14 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: : Theodoric establishes kingdom of Ostrogoths in Italy 529: St. Benedict founds monastery at Monte Cassino 533: Justinian codifies Roman law : building of Hagia Sophia 622: Muhammad’s flight from Mecca (Hegira)

15 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 622: Muhammad’s flight from Mecca (Hegira) 732: Charles Martel defeats Muslims at Poitiers

16 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 622: Muhammad’s flight from Mecca (Hegira) 732: Charles Martel defeats Muslims at Poitiers 754: Pope Stephen ii and Pepin iii ally

17 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 622: Muhammad’s flight from Mecca (Hegira) 732: Charles Martel defeats Muslims at Poitiers 754: Pope Stephen ii and Pepin iii ally 800: Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor

18 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 622: Muhammad’s flight from Mecca (Hegira) 732: Charles Martel defeats Muslims at Poitiers 754: Pope Stephen ii and Pepin iii ally 800: Charlemagne crowned Holy Roman Emperor 843: Treaty of Verdun: the sons of Louis the Pious (Charlemagne’s son): Charles the Bald, Lotharius, and Louis the German

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20 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 843: Treaty of Verdun: the sons of Louis the Pious (Charlemagne’s son): Charles the Bald, Lotharius, and Louis the German Late 9 th – 10 th centuries: Vikings!

21 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 843: Treaty of Verdun: the sons of Louis the Pious (Charlemagne’s son): Charles the Bald, Lotharius, and Louis the German Late 9 th – 10 th centuries: Vikings! 885: Cyril and Methodius bring Cyrillic alphabet to Bulgaria

22 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 843: Treaty of Verdun: the sons of Louis the Pious (Charlemagne’s son): Charles the Bald, Lotharius, and Louis the German Late 9 th – 10 th centuries: Vikings! 885: Cyril and Methodius bring Cyrillic alphabet to Bulgaria 962: Otto the Great crowned Holy Roman Emperor

23 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Timeline: 843: Treaty of Verdun: the sons of Louis the Pious (Charlemagne’s son): Charles the Bald, Lotharius, and Louis the German Late 9 th – 10 th centuries: Vikings! 885: Cyril and Methodius bring Cyrillic alphabet to Bulgaria 962: Otto the Great crowned Holy Roman Emperor 1054: East / West divided by Great Schism

24 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Feudalism. As an economic system, it grew up as a response to FRAGMENTATION and DECENTRALIZATION during the early middle ages. It has ramifications for society, politics, military, and economics in the middle ages. Feudal societies grow up where a Lord or Prince is dominant and where the highest virtues become TRUST and FIDELITY

25 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Highest virtues are TRUST and FIDELITY: why? The two institutions of feudal society:

26 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Highest virtues are TRUST and FIDELITY: why? The two institutions of feudal society: VASSALAGE

27 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Highest virtues are TRUST and FIDELITY: why? The two institutions of feudal society: VASSALAGE And FIEF

28 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Highest virtues are TRUST and FIDELITY: why? The two institutions of feudal society: VASSALAGE: “fealty” to a lord And FIEF

29 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Highest virtues are TRUST and FIDELITY: why? The two institutions of feudal society: VASSALAGE: “fealty” to a lord And FIEF: goods with which the vassal can serve

30 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Highest virtues are TRUST and FIDELITY: why? The two institutions of feudal society: VASSALAGE: “fealty” to a lord A promise to refrain from action that could jeopardize the lord’s wellbeing FIEF: goods with which the vassal can serve

31 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Highest virtues are TRUST and FIDELITY: why? The two institutions of feudal society: VASSALAGE: “fealty” to a lord A promise to refrain from action that could jeopardize the lord’s wellbeing Promise to perform personal services on request FIEF: goods with which the vassal can serve

32 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Highest virtues are TRUST and FIDELITY: why? The two institutions of feudal society: VASSALAGE: “fealty” to a lord A promise to refrain from action that could jeopardize the lord’s wellbeing Promise to perform personal services on request Promise to provide military aid on request FIEF: goods with which the vassal can serve

33 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Highest virtues are TRUST and FIDELITY: why? The two institutions of feudal society: VASSALAGE: “fealty” to a lord A promise to refrain from action that could jeopardize the lord’s wellbeing Promise to perform personal services on request Promise to provide military aid on request FIEF: goods with which the vassal can serve Cash (liquid assets)

34 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Highest virtues are TRUST and FIDELITY: why? The two institutions of feudal society: VASSALAGE: “fealty” to a lord A promise to refrain from action that could jeopardize the lord’s wellbeing Promise to perform personal services on request Promise to provide military aid on request FIEF: goods with which the vassal can serve Cash (liquid assets) Real property

35 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Difficulty in maintaining peace in a feudal society: the payoff for loyalty versus the acquisition of wealth and property At the local level feudalism creates a distinction between the MANOR and SERFDOM

36 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments The High Middle Ages: Emerging national monarchies (France, England, Germany) Western church is centered on the Pope in Rome Church established as authority independent of secular government (compare the time of Constantine!)

37 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments Church established as authority independent of secular government (compare the time of Constantine!) The Investiture Struggle 11 th -12 th centuries – Begins with many centuries in the West in which secular leaders would appoint (or sell) church offices of bishop or abbot to figures who would be faithful to the secular lord. – Selling of offices is known as “simony”

38 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments The Investiture Struggle 11 th -12 th centuries – Bishops and abbots were very often already part of the secular government Literate and literate resources Already established families – Gregorian reforms Henry iv becomes boy king of Germany the College of Cardinals is created to elect and protect Papacy Pope Gregory vii elected 1073 Declares that the Pope alone can make or depose churchmen

39 The Middle Ages: political, religious, and economic developments

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