Presentation on theme: "The Church in the Middle Ages"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Church in the Middle Ages What was the nature and influence of religion in the Middle Ages?What led to the growth of papal power in Europe?Why did the Church become powerful and important in the Middle Ages?
2 Christian beliefs Christian Beliefs Manorialism, feudalism encouraged local loyaltiesChristian beliefs brought people across Europe together in spiritual community of ChristendomCreation of a “churchly kingdom”Religion touched almost every aspect of Christians’ lives
3 Why was medieval clergy influential? Religious CeremonyMajor life events marked by religious ceremoniesMonks acted as peacemakers, prayed for safety of rulers, armiesChurch officials served as teachers, record keepersChurch leaders, or clergy, usually the only ones educated and literate during this timeClergy people’s main connection to church, had great influenceChristian church had strong influence over daily lives of most Europeans; clergy were the people's link to the church
4 Why was medieval clergy influential? Growth of the ChurchAround 1000, influence of church increased dramaticallyGreat upwelling of piety, level of devotion, in EuropeMembers of Christian church became more devout (religious)Participation in religious services increased, thousands flocked to monasteries, joined religious orders
5 The Pope in the Middle Ages Popes as Political FiguresPope is head of Roman Catholic Church and spiritual leaderDuring Middle Ages, they became powerful political figuresGregory I (590) moves power of pope into secular (everyday) world—used Church money to build roads, help poor, raise armiesNegotiates peace treaties with invaders like the Lombards
6 Growth of the Pope’s Power 900s-1000s, pope had little authorityConsidered head of church, but local bishops made most important religious decisionsPapacy not held in high regardFew popes noted for religious devotion; most were nobles concerned with increasing own power1049, first of series of clever, capable popes dedicated to reforming papacy came to power, Leo IXBelieved that Europe’s clergy had become corrupt, wanted to reform itConcerned with simony, buying and selling of church offices by bishopsNot only were Europe’s common people inspired by a new sense of piety, many clergy members sought ways to improve conditions.
7 Power and ConflictBishops guilty of bad offenses excommunicated, cast out of churchNo greater punishment for Christians in Middle Ages—it meant they could not be savedLeo became more active in governing church than other popes in pastconflict with political, religious leadersMany bishops believed pope had no authority to tell them how to actOne who rejected Leo’s authority, bishop of Constantinople1054, Leo excommunicated bishop, split Christian Church in two (schism)Those who agreed Leo called Roman Catholics (WEST)Those who sided with bishop, Eastern Orthodox (EAST—Byzantine)
9 In what ways did popes become stronger in the Middle Ages? Pope became head of huge network of ecclesiastical courts, heard cases on religious, moral mattersPope also ruled territories, like Papal StatesHad ability to raise armies to defend territoriesSeveral popes hired Normans to fight warsCrusades against Muslims launched by popesThe Investiture Controversy between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV of Germany (Holy Roman Empire)eliminated corrupt clergy, appointed bishops, became political leaders, built armies, ruled territory
10 Main IdeasReform and changes swept through the Christian Church, one of the most influential institutions in medieval Europe.Popes gained influence over people’s religious lives, also over European politics