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The Church in the Middle Ages

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1 The Church in the Middle Ages
What was the nature and influence of religion in the Middle Ages? What led to the growth of papal power in Europe? Why did the Church become powerful and important in the Middle Ages?

2 Christian beliefs Christian Beliefs
Manorialism, feudalism encouraged local loyalties Christian beliefs brought people across Europe together in spiritual community of Christendom Creation of a “churchly kingdom” Religion touched almost every aspect of Christians’ lives

3 Why was medieval clergy influential?
Religious Ceremony Major life events marked by religious ceremonies Monks acted as peacemakers, prayed for safety of rulers, armies Church officials served as teachers, record keepers Church leaders, or clergy, usually the only ones educated and literate during this time Clergy people’s main connection to church, had great influence Christian church had strong influence over daily lives of most Europeans; clergy were the people's link to the church

4 Why was medieval clergy influential?
Growth of the Church Around 1000, influence of church increased dramatically Great upwelling of piety, level of devotion, in Europe Members of Christian church became more devout (religious) Participation in religious services increased, thousands flocked to monasteries, joined religious orders

5 The Pope in the Middle Ages
Popes as Political Figures Pope is head of Roman Catholic Church and spiritual leader During Middle Ages, they became powerful political figures Gregory I (590) moves power of pope into secular (everyday) world—used Church money to build roads, help poor, raise armies Negotiates peace treaties with invaders like the Lombards

6 Growth of the Pope’s Power
900s-1000s, pope had little authority Considered head of church, but local bishops made most important religious decisions Papacy not held in high regard Few popes noted for religious devotion; most were nobles concerned with increasing own power 1049, first of series of clever, capable popes dedicated to reforming papacy came to power, Leo IX Believed that Europe’s clergy had become corrupt, wanted to reform it Concerned with simony, buying and selling of church offices by bishops Not only were Europe’s common people inspired by a new sense of piety, many clergy members sought ways to improve conditions.

7 Power and Conflict Bishops guilty of bad offenses excommunicated, cast out of church No greater punishment for Christians in Middle Ages—it meant they could not be saved Leo became more active in governing church than other popes in past conflict with political, religious leaders Many bishops believed pope had no authority to tell them how to act One who rejected Leo’s authority, bishop of Constantinople 1054, Leo excommunicated bishop, split Christian Church in two (schism) Those who agreed Leo called Roman Catholics (WEST) Those who sided with bishop, Eastern Orthodox (EAST—Byzantine)


9 In what ways did popes become stronger in the Middle Ages?
Pope became head of huge network of ecclesiastical courts, heard cases on religious, moral matters Pope also ruled territories, like Papal States Had ability to raise armies to defend territories Several popes hired Normans to fight wars Crusades against Muslims launched by popes The Investiture Controversy between Pope Gregory VII and Henry IV of Germany (Holy Roman Empire) eliminated corrupt clergy, appointed bishops, became political leaders, built armies, ruled territory

10 Main Ideas Reform and changes swept through the Christian Church, one of the most influential institutions in medieval Europe. Popes gained influence over people’s religious lives, also over European politics

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