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Reforms and Revolutions AND The Revolutions of 1848 in Europe

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1 Reforms and Revolutions AND The Revolutions of 1848 in Europe
Eastview High School – AP European History Ch23 “Ideologies & Upheavals” (Sections 4 & 5) McKay, et al. 8th edition

2 Essential Questions The battle of ideologies continues; where does liberalism and nationalism make gains during this time? How did the political revolution, derailed in France and resisted by European monarchs, eventually break out again after 1815? Why did the revolutionary surge triumph briefly in 1848 and then fail almost completely?

3 National Liberation in Greece
Greek nationalists led by Ypsilanti in 1821 fought for freedom from the Ottoman Turks Ypsilanti fought in the wars against Napoleon where he lost an arm. He was a popular figure at the Congress of Vienna He was a Russian national who was elected leader by the Greeks. Great Powers supported the Turks, but Britain, France, and Russia support the nationalists. Greece becomes independent in

4 Liberal Reforms in Great Britain
British aristocracy, which controlled the Tory party, feared liberalism and worked to repress it. Corn Law (1815), which protected English landowners by stopping importation of foreign grain unless the price rose above a certain level. Example of aristocratic class power and selfishness. Corn Laws prompted urban laborers, supported by radical intellectuals Parliament responded by Six Acts (1819). Eliminated mass meetings. Cartoon of the Six Acts

5 Liberal Reforms in Great Britain
Growing middle class pressure led to Reform Bill of Increased number of voters. House of Commons emerged as the major legislative body Industrial areas of GB gained representation “Rotten Boroughs” eliminated Chartist demand for universal male suffrage failed, but Anti-Corn Law league succeeded in getting Corn Laws repealed in 1846 and free trade established 1846, Tory and Whig parties were interested in reform and passes Ten Hours Act (1847). Limited factory workday women and young people to ten hours. Cartoon of “Rotten Boroughs”

6 Ireland and the Great Famine
Most of Ireland were Catholic peasants who rented land from lazy greedy English Protestant landlords. Peasants lived in shocking poverty, with tremendous population growth. Population growth due to potato cultivation, early marriage, and high rents 1820 on the potato crop was often diseased and ended up in starvation Relief efforts were inadequate. Landlords insisted on rents, government on taxes. Led to mass evictions. Millions died or left Ireland. Anti- British feeling and Irish nationalism followed

7 Revolution of 1830 in France
Louis XVIII’s Constitutional Charter of 1814, although undemocratic, protected the people against a return to royal absolutism and aristocratic privilege. Louis dies in 1824. Charles X tries to rally French nationalism and popular support through a war with Algeria. Charles X tried to re-establish the old order and repudiated the Constitutional Charter of 1830 in an attempted coup in July 1830. New king, Louis Philippe, accepted the Constitutional Charter of but did little more than protect the rich upper middle class. Louis XVIII Charles X Louis Philippe

8 Democratic Republic of France
Refusal of King Louis Philippe and Guizot (chief minister) to bring about electoral sparked a revolt in Paris in 1848. Revolt led to a provisional republic, universal male suffrage, and more. Revolutionary coalition couldn’t agree on a common program. Moderate liberal republicans split with the radical socialist republicans Artisans hated cutthroat capitalism and wanted stronger craft unions National workshops were a compromise between the socialist demands for guaranteed work and the moderates’ determination to provide temporary relief for the massive unemployment

9 Revolution of 1848 in France
Fear of socialism led to a clash of class Workers invaded the Constituent Assembly and tried to proclaim a new revolutionary government. The Assembly dissolved the workshops in Paris Closing of the workshops led to a violent uprising (June Days) Class war led to the election of a strongman, Louis Napoleon, as president in 1848.

10 Revolution of 1848 in Austria
Revolution in France resulted in popular upheaval throughout central Europe, but in the end conservative reaction won Hungarian nationalism resulted in revolution against the Austrian overlords Under Kossuth, the Hungarians demanded national autonomy, civil liberties, and universal suffrage Emperor Ferdinand I promised reforms and a liberal constitution Serfdom was abolished

11 Restoring order in Austria 1848
Conflict among nationalities (Hungarians vs Croats, Serbs and Romanians; Czechs vs. Germans) encouraged by the monarchy, weakened the revolution. Alliance of the working and middle classes soon collapsed. Conservative aristocrats crushed the revolution after rallying around a point made by the archduchess Sophia. She insisted that Ferdinand had no heir and that her son should be on the throne. Francis Joseph was crowned emperor in 1848 Russian army helped defeat the Hungarians Francis Joseph was crowned emperor after his 18th birthday

12 Revolution of 1848 in Prussia
Middle class Prussians want to create a unified liberal Germany Working class people of Prussia demanded and got a liberal constitution from Fredrick William IV. Further workers demands for suffrage and socialist reforms caused fear among the aristocracy. Frankfurt National Assembly of was middle-class liberal body that began writing a constitution for a unified Germany War with Denmark over Schleswig- Holstein ended with a rejection of the Frankfurt Assembly by newly elected Frederick William and failure of German liberalism.

13 Questions for your review
Which countries ultimately supported the nationalists in Greece? How would you characterize the “Tory” party? How would you characterize the “Whig” party? What were the revisions to the Corn Law (1815) intended to do? What were the consequences of the repeal of the Corn Law? What were the consequences of the English Reform Bill of 1832? What act precipitated the Revolution of 1830 in Paris? Who were the “winners” of the Revolution of 1830 in France? To whom can the success of the Revolution of 1830 in France be attributed? Who was Guizot? Which French socialist participated in the provisional government in Paris 1848? What were the causes of the 1848 Revolution in France? What has changed at the conclusion of the Revolution of 1848 in France? Where did revolution begin in the Austrian Empire (1848)? What were the causes of the 1848 Revolution in Austria? What was archduchess Sophia’s role in the Revolution? What did the Hapsburgs exploit to defeat the revolutionary coalition? After Austria, what was the most important German state? What groups composed the National Assembly that met in Frankfurt in 1848?

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