Presentation on theme: "THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1848. INTRODUCTION Almost fifty revolutions occurred in this year. In the end, they were all put down and/or contained. Causes varied."— Presentation transcript:
THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1848
INTRODUCTION Almost fifty revolutions occurred in this year. In the end, they were all put down and/or contained. Causes varied across the Continent and included food shortages, a depression in commerce and industry, widespread unemployment, nationalism, discontent among the working classes, and the desire for more political power by the middle class political liberals.
CENTERS OF REVOLUTION IN 1848–1849 The revolution that toppled the July monarchy in Paris in 1848 soon spread to Austria and many of the German and Italian states. Yet by the end of 1849, most of these uprisings had been suppressed.
FRANCE The refusal of King Louis Philippe and his chief minister, Guizot, to bring about electoral reform sparked a revolt in Paris on February 22, 1848. Louis Philippe fled to England after the revolt.
FRANCE During the February days of the French Revolution of 1848, crowds in Paris burned the throne of Louis Philippe.
FRANCE A. Viva la Republic!: The revolt led to the establishment of a provisional republic that granted universal male suffrage. It was led by poet, Alphonse de Lamartine.
FRANCE B. Strange Bedfellows: The revolutionary coalition could not agree on a common program. A split occurred between the moderate, liberal republicans represented by Lamartine and the socialist republicans, led by Louis Blanc who wanted national workshops for the unemployed.
FRANCE 1. National Workshops were a compromise between the socialists’ demand for work for all and the moderates’ determination to provide only temporary relief for the massive unemployment. 2. Conflict between classes resulted from a fear of socialism. The workers invaded the Constituent Assembly and tried to proclaim a new revolutionary government. 3. The Assembly dissolved the workshops in May which led to a violent uprising – the June Days
FRANCE Louis Napoleon: Class warfare resulted in the election of this strongman (nephew of Napoleon I) to the presidency in 1848. On December 1851 he dissolved the French Parliament and one year later declared himself sole ruler as Emperor Napoleon III.
THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE A. French Inspiration: Revolution in France resulted in popular upheaval throughout central Europe. B. Vienna: Inspired by the Magyar nationalist, Louis Kossuth, beginning on March 13, 1848, students and workingmen engaged in riots and invaded the imperial palace. The army failed to contain the disturbances. The government, fearful that urban unrest would cause an uprising of the serfs in the countryside, abolished serfdom. Metternich resigned and fled in disguise to England.
THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE C. Hungary –1. Led by Louis Kossuth, the Hungarians (Magyars) demanded national autonomy, civil liberties, and universal suffrage. –2. Emperor Ferdinand I promised reforms and a liberal constitution. Serfdom was abolished by the end of March, 1848
THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE –3. The revolution lost steam due to conflict among different nationalities (Hungarians vs. Croats, Serbs, Romanians; Czechs vs. Germans) which was encouraged by the Austrian monarchy. The leaders of the revolution wanted to restructure the country according to ethnic language and culture.
THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE –4. The alliance of the working and middle classes collapsed. The conservative aristocrats crushed the revolution. –5. Francis Joseph was crowned emperor in 1848. –6. The Russian army helped to defeat the Hungarians.
THE AUSTRIAN EMPIRE D. Bohemia: In April, 1848 an uprising broke out in Prague. Czech nationalists met at an all-Slav congress. They called for a constituent assembly for Bohemia. They demanded that the Czech language be used along with German in schools and government offices. In June, 1848 imperial troops bombarded Prague and crushed the Czech rebellion.
ITALY TO 1850: A BATTLE GROUND FOR GREAT POWERS Metternich said Italy was not a nation, but a “geographical expression”. A. Italy prior to 1860 was divided; much of it was under the control of Austria and the pope. B. Between 1815 and 1848, the goal of unification began to appeal to Italians
ITALY TO 1850: A BATTLE GROUND FOR GREAT POWERS C. Three Approaches to Unification: Risorgimento – resurgence –1. Guiseppi Mazzini – had been a member of the secret Carbonari. He founded the Young Italy Movement to promote unification. Goal to found a democratic republic based on universal suffrage. 1848 revolutions failed when rebels seized the papacy angering European Catholics and prompting Napoleon III to send in a French army to put down the rebels. Mazzini went into exile.
ITALY TO 1850: A BATTLE GROUND FOR GREAT POWERS –2. Papal Power Vincenzo Gioberti (philosopher and statesman): supported movement for a unified Italian state centered on the Papacy. Wanted federation of existing states under the presidency of the pope Pius IX: Had supported unification in 1848 but backed away from the idea after his seizure by rebels and in subsequent years he opposed nationalism and other modern ideas. In 1864 his paper Syllabus of Errors denounced rationalism, socialism, separation of church and state, and religious liberty.
ITALY TO 1850: A BATTLE GROUND FOR GREAT POWERS –3. Sardinia: Prince Charles Albert of Sardinia- Piedmont (1831-1849) fought against Austrian control, gave his people a constitution allowing civil liberties and a parliamentary government with control over taxed; but both the war of liberation and the revolutionary republics set up in Rome, Venice, and Tuscany were crushed by Austria in 1849, aided by the French troops. The dream of a united Italy was shattered although Sardinia kept its independence. Charles Albert abdicated in favor of his son. Victor Emmanuel II: retained the Sardinian constitution.
PRUSSIA A. Post Congress of Vienna: the Congress of Vienna had established the German Confederation. Liberal and nationalist movements were circumscribed by the 1819 Carlsbad Decrees (members of the German Confederation were required to root out subversive ideas in their universities and newspapers; a permanent committee of spies was established to investigate and punish any liberal or radical organizations.) France and Russia encouraged rivalries among the German States to prevent the emergence of a strong, united nation on their borders. Prussia, under the Hohenzollerns, took the lead in the unification process in the German states.
B. Supporters of Unification –1. Middle Class Aspirations: wish to create a unified, liberal Germany. –2. Working Class Aspirations: inspired by events in France: they demanded and received a liberal constitution. However, their demands for suffrage and socialist reforms incited fear among the aristocracy. –3. Frankfurt National Assembly(1848): composed of middle class liberals who began writing a constitution for a unified Germany. –4. War with Denmark: Prussia and Denmark were fighting over the provinces of Schleswig and Holstein. The Frankfurt Assembly was rejected by the newly-elected Frederick William IV. This attempt at German liberalism had failed
PRUSSIA C. a Look Backward –1640-1713 Frederick William, the Great Elector –1713-1740 Frederick William I –1740-1786 Frederick II (the Great) –1786-1797 Frederick William II –1797-1840 Frederick William III
PRUSSIA D. Frederick William IV (1840- 1861) Son of Frederick William III, he began his reign by granting minor reforms and promising radical changes. He wanted to unify Germany “from above”. He opposed the popular movement of 1848, but was forced to grant a representative parliament in 1850. In 1857, afflicted with insanity, he resigned the administration to his brother.
PRUSSIA E. Germany Before Bismarck: In the aftermath of 1848, the German states were locked in a political stalemate. Prussian Junkers had pressed for removal of internal tariffs. They organized the Zollverein (1834), a customs union which by 1844 included most of the German States but excluded Austria. It became a crucial factor in the Austro-Prussian rivalry for power.