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Section 2 Revolutions of 1830 and 1848.  The Charter of French Liberties 1. Created by Louie XVIII after COV 2. Is a written Constitution 3. Created.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 2 Revolutions of 1830 and 1848.  The Charter of French Liberties 1. Created by Louie XVIII after COV 2. Is a written Constitution 3. Created."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 2 Revolutions of 1830 and 1848

2  The Charter of French Liberties 1. Created by Louie XVIII after COV 2. Is a written Constitution 3. Created a two house legislature 4. Limited freedom of the press  Few people were satisfied

3 Ultraroyalists (supporters of the King) Ultraroyalists 1.Supporters of the King 2.Despised constitutional government 3.Wanted to restore the Old Regime

4  Charles X, brother of Louis XVIII 1. Became King after the death of his brother (1824) 2. Strong believer in absolutism 3. Rejected the idea of the Charter of French Liberties

5  July 1830, Charles X 1. Suspended the legislature 2. Limited the right to vote 3. Restricted the press

6  In Paris, angry liberal and radical citizens responded with force  Within days, radicals controlled Paris by 1. Setting up barricades 2. Firing upon soldiers 3. Pelting soldiers with stones  Charles X abdicated the throne and fled Paris

7  Radicals wanted to set up a republic  Moderate liberals wanted a constitutional monarchy  Louis Philippe was chosen as king; he was chosen by the lower house of the French legislature

8  Louis Philippe, cousin of Charles X  Citizen King because he owed his throne to the people  Got along well with the liberal bourgeoisie

9  Under his rule the upper bourgeoisie prospered 1. Suffrage extended to France’s wealthier citizens 2. Created policies that favored the middle class 3. Lower class / working class still not represented

10  Radicals unhappy with France in the 1840’s  Secret societies pushed for a Republic  Utopian socialists called for an end to private ownership  Liberals called for an end to Louis Philippe’s government; called for expansion of suffrage

11  A recession ignited the flames of revolution  Factories shut down / people lost jobs  Poor harvests caused rising bread prices  Government officials receive the blame

12  Government took steps to end the ridicule  Angry mobs took to the streets  As the turmoil spread Louis Philippe abdicated  The birth of the Second Republic

13  Second Republic the works of a group 1. Liberal 2. Radical 3. Socialist  Socialists wanted to help the hungry and working classes 1. Established national workshops; provided jobs for the unemployed

14  Upper and middle class’s win control over the government; shut down national workshops  Angry workers take to the streets of Paris and riot (“Bread or Lead!”)  Bourgeoisie Liberals responded with violence; peasants who feared socialist would take their land, attacked the rioting workers

15  Nearly 1,500 people were killed before the government shut down the rebellion  Aftermath 1. Middle class feared and distrusted those to the left 2. working class had a deep hatred for the bourgeoisie

16  By the end of 1848 the National Assembly 1. Issued a constitution for the Second Republic 2. Created a strong president 3. Established a one-house legislature 4. Allowed suffrage to all adult men (9 million men, before 200,000)

17  Presidential election winner = Louis Napoleon; nephew of Napoleon Bonapate 1. Attracted the working class; presented himself as someone who cared about social issues (poverty) 2. Liked by conservatives because of his historical name

18  By 1852 he proclaimed himself emperor; calling himself Napoleon III  Used a plebiscite to win public approval as justification for taking power  90% of voters approved the move to establish the Second Empire

19  Paris inspires uprisings to break out elsewhere in Europe  “When France Sneezes, Europe catches cold.” – Metternich

20  1830, Belgians resented the arrangement that placed them and Holland under the Dutch King made at the COV  Belgians and Dutch separated by 1. Language 2. Religions (Catholic / Protestants) 3. Economic interests (manufacturing / trade)  After learning about the revolutions in France of 1830, Belgians revolutionary spirit is ignited

21  Students and workers barricaded the streets of Brussels, and turned to violence versus soldiers  The Dutch King turned to his partners of the COV for help  Britain and France knew this revolt would disrupt the boundaries set at COV but would benefit more by having an independent Belgium and Holland

22  Other COV countries; Austria, Prussia and Russia were too busy putting down revolts of their own to aid the Dutch King  1831Belgium becomes an independent state with a liberal constitution

23  Poles join to forge a nationalist uprising  Unlike the Belgians, Poles were unable to declare their independence  Most of Poland landed under the was under Russian rule because of the COV

24  French Revolution of 1848 unleashed a wave of revolution across Europe  Time for opponents of the old order to make a stand, “springtime of the peoples.”

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26  Grievances had been piling up for years in Europe 1. Middle-class liberals wanted a greater share of political power for themselves 2. Middle-class liberals wanted protections for basic rights of all citizens 3. Workers demanded relief from the miseries of the Industrial Revolution 4. Nationalists wanted independence from foreign oppression

27  Foreign Minister of the Austrian Empire  Leading voice in the COV  Revolts break out in Vienna (Austria) 1. Students supported by workers took to the streets rioting 2. Demanded liberal reforms 3. Metternich resigned his post as minister

28  Revolts in Austria spread to Budapest and Prague  Nationalist demanded an independent government from the empire  Wanted an end of serfdom and wanted a written constitution  Made gains, but they were temporary  Austrian troops regained re-took control of Vienna and Prague

29  Nationalist uprising begins in Italy  Italy was controlled by the Austrian Empire  Nationalists goals were linked to liberal reforms and established new republics  Workers wanted to push the reforms further  Austrian troops but an end to revolts, and put things back to the way they were before the revolutions

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31  University students demanded national unity and liberal reform  Famine leaves workers and peasants angry and hungry  There were many divisions amongst reformers  Finally offered the King of Prussia Frederick William IV the crown of a united Germany

32  Frederick William IV rejected the crown because it was offered by the people  1849 – assembly dissolved by Prussian army  Middle class reformers and radical reformers clash; hundred killed, many more hundreds put in jail


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