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Chapter 8 – Revolutions in Europe and Latin America,

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 8 – Revolutions in Europe and Latin America,"— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 8 – Revolutions in Europe and Latin America, 1790 - 1848
Section 2 Revolutions of 1830 and 1848

2 The French Revolution of 1830
The Charter of French Liberties Created by Louie XVIII after COV Is a written Constitution Created a two house legislature Limited freedom of the press Few people were satisfied

3 Ultraroyalists (supporters of the King)
Ideological Spectrum Ultraroyalists (supporters of the King) Ultraroyalists Supporters of the King Despised constitutional government Wanted to restore the Old Regime

4 The July Revolution Charles X, brother of Louis XVIII
Became King after the death of his brother (1824) Strong believer in absolutism Rejected the idea of the Charter of French Liberties

5 The July Revolution July 1830, Charles X Suspended the legislature
Limited the right to vote Restricted the press

6 The July Revolution In Paris, angry liberal and radical citizens responded with force Within days, radicals controlled Paris by Setting up barricades Firing upon soldiers Pelting soldiers with stones Charles X abdicated the throne and fled Paris

7 The July Revolution Radicals wanted to set up a republic
Moderate liberals wanted a constitutional monarchy Louis Philippe was chosen as king; he was chosen by the lower house of the French legislature

8 The “Citizen King” Louis Philippe, cousin of Charles X
Citizen King because he owed his throne to the people Got along well with the liberal bourgeoisie

9 The “Citizen King” Under his rule the upper bourgeoisie prospered
Suffrage extended to France’s wealthier citizens Created policies that favored the middle class Lower class / working class still not represented

10 The French Revolution of 1848
Radicals unhappy with France in the 1840’s Secret societies pushed for a Republic Utopian socialists called for an end to private ownership Liberals called for an end to Louis Philippe’s government; called for expansion of suffrage

11 The French Revolution of 1848
A recession ignited the flames of revolution Factories shut down / people lost jobs Poor harvests caused rising bread prices Government officials receive the blame

12 February Days (1848) Government took steps to end the ridicule
Angry mobs took to the streets As the turmoil spread Louis Philippe abdicated The birth of the Second Republic

13 February Days (1848) Second Republic the works of a group Liberal
Radical Socialist Socialists wanted to help the hungry and working classes Established national workshops; provided jobs for the unemployed

14 June Days (1848) Upper and middle class’s win control over the government; shut down national workshops Angry workers take to the streets of Paris and riot (“Bread or Lead!”) Bourgeoisie Liberals responded with violence; peasants who feared socialist would take their land, attacked the rioting workers

15 June Days (1848) Nearly 1,500 people were killed before the government shut down the rebellion Aftermath Middle class feared and distrusted those to the left working class had a deep hatred for the bourgeoisie

16 Louis Napoleon By the end of 1848 the National Assembly
Issued a constitution for the Second Republic Created a strong president Established a one-house legislature Allowed suffrage to all adult men (9 million men, before 200,000)

17 Louis Napoleon Presidential election winner = Louis Napoleon; nephew of Napoleon Bonapate Attracted the working class; presented himself as someone who cared about social issues (poverty) Liked by conservatives because of his historical name

18 Louis Napoleon By 1852 he proclaimed himself emperor; calling himself Napoleon III Used a plebiscite to win public approval as justification for taking power 90% of voters approved the move to establish the Second Empire

19 The Spread of Revolution
Paris inspires uprisings to break out elsewhere in Europe “When France Sneezes, Europe catches cold.” – Metternich

20 Belgium 1830, Belgians resented the arrangement that placed them and Holland under the Dutch King made at the COV Belgians and Dutch separated by Language Religions (Catholic / Protestants) Economic interests (manufacturing / trade) After learning about the revolutions in France of 1830, Belgians revolutionary spirit is ignited

21 Belgium Students and workers barricaded the streets of Brussels, and turned to violence versus soldiers The Dutch King turned to his partners of the COV for help Britain and France knew this revolt would disrupt the boundaries set at COV but would benefit more by having an independent Belgium and Holland

22 Belgium Other COV countries; Austria, Prussia and Russia were too busy putting down revolts of their own to aid the Dutch King 1831Belgium becomes an independent state with a liberal constitution

23 Poland Poles join to forge a nationalist uprising
Unlike the Belgians, Poles were unable to declare their independence Most of Poland landed under the was under Russian rule because of the COV

24 1848: Another Wave of Rebellion
French Revolution of 1848 unleashed a wave of revolution across Europe Time for opponents of the old order to make a stand, “springtime of the peoples.”


26 Sources of Discontent Grievances had been piling up for years in Europe Middle-class liberals wanted a greater share of political power for themselves Middle-class liberals wanted protections for basic rights of all citizens Workers demanded relief from the miseries of the Industrial Revolution Nationalists wanted independence from foreign oppression

27 Metternich Falls Foreign Minister of the Austrian Empire
Leading voice in the COV Revolts break out in Vienna (Austria) Students supported by workers took to the streets rioting Demanded liberal reforms Metternich resigned his post as minister

28 Metternich Falls Revolts in Austria spread to Budapest and Prague
Nationalist demanded an independent government from the empire Wanted an end of serfdom and wanted a written constitution Made gains, but they were temporary Austrian troops regained re-took control of Vienna and Prague

29 Revolution in Italy Nationalist uprising begins in Italy
Italy was controlled by the Austrian Empire Nationalists goals were linked to liberal reforms and established new republics Workers wanted to push the reforms further Austrian troops but an end to revolts, and put things back to the way they were before the revolutions


31 Turmoil in the German States
University students demanded national unity and liberal reform Famine leaves workers and peasants angry and hungry There were many divisions amongst reformers Finally offered the King of Prussia Frederick William IV the crown of a united Germany

32 Turmoil in German States
Frederick William IV rejected the crown because it was offered by the people 1849 – assembly dissolved by Prussian army Middle class reformers and radical reformers clash; hundred killed, many more hundreds put in jail

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