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Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Government and Society Reform and Repression Quick Facts: Last Czars of Russia War and.

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Presentation on theme: "Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Government and Society Reform and Repression Quick Facts: Last Czars of Russia War and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Preview Main Idea / Reading Focus Government and Society Reform and Repression Quick Facts: Last Czars of Russia War and Revolution Quick Facts: Russian Revolution of 1905 Visual Study Guide / Quick Facts Video: The Impact of Nationalism Unrest in Russia

2 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Reading Focus What was government and society like in Russia in the first half of the 1800s? What were some examples of reform and repression in Russia? How did war and revolution affect Russia in the early 1900s? Main Idea In the 1800s and early 1900s, Russians rebelled against the absolute power of the czar and demanded social reforms. Unrest in Russia

3 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 To govern large, diverse empire, Russian monarchs ruled with absolute power Called czars, controlled most aspects of Russian life Believed in autocracy, government by one leader with unlimited powers Absolute Power Russia one of great powers of Europe, first half 1800s Troops helped defeat Napoleon; leaders helped reorganize Europe after his fall Russia very different from other European powers Empire huge, stretched eastward far into Asia, included many different ethnic groups Huge Empire Government and Society

4 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Agricultural Society Russian society under czars mostly agricultural Unlike other European countries, Russia had not industrialized Much of population, serfs—workers considered part of land they worked Societal Problem Serfs had to make regular payments of goods, labor to lords Some in government wanted to improve conditions, unable to make reforms Russian serfdom way of life, a major problem in Russian society Serfs Controlled by lords, wealthy nobles who owned land Technically not slaves; living conditions, lack of freedom, resembled slavery Not allowed to leave property where born; did not own land they worked Serfdom

5 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Summarize What was Russian government and society like in the first half of the 1800s? Answer(s): autocratic government led by czar, country's population mainly peasants, many peasants were serfs

6 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Russians wanted more freedoms. But Russia’s conservative czars were resistant to reform, which led to revolts, unrest, and repression. Secret societies formed to fight against czar’s rule Saw opportunity for change with death of Alexander I, 1825 One group called Decembrists –Included military officers –3,000 soldiers assembled near Winter Palace –Refused to declare allegiance to new czar, Nicholas I The Decembrist Revolt Nicholas responded by crushing rebellion Many Decembrists captured, sent to Siberia, isolated region in far eastern Russia Five Decembrists executed Decembrist revolt failed, but began revolutionary movement in Russia destined to grow in years ahead Nicholas’s Response Reform and Repression

7 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Russia Lagging Behind Alexander II came to power after Nicholas, 1855, near end of Crimean War Loss of war showed Russia far behind rest of Europe Did not have modern technology, industry to build competitive military Economy Alexander II hoped giving serfs own land would build market economy Government set up system for peasants to buy land they worked on from landowner, usually with government help Reforms Alexander II began program of reforms 1861, freed Russia’s serfs, gave them right to own land as part of commune Believed terrible living conditions could bring rebellion Reforms of Alexander II

8 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Reform and Repression Alexander II made other reforms to modernize Russia Set up new judicial system Allowed some local self-government Reorganized army, navy Despite reforms, revolutionary movements continued to gain strength, call for more changes 1881, radical group, The People’s Will, assassinated Czar Alexander II

9 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Alexander’s son, Alexander III, became next czar Alexander III a reactionary, wanted to go back to way things were in past, ended father’s reforms Responded to revolutionary threats by going after individuals, groups suspected of plotting against government Mobs began attacking Jews, killing them, destroying property Attacks known as pogroms; first wave began after Alexander II assassinated Some wrongly blamed Jews Government did not stop attacks Different Form of Unrest 1894, Nicholas II crowned Autocratic ruler, developed industry 1890s, Russia began building Trans-Siberian Railroad to link western Russia with Siberia Expansion east would lead to war Industrialization under Nicholas Unrest Under Alexander II

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11 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Identify What were some key reforms in Russia during the 1800s? Answer(s): freeing of serfs; system whereby peasants could buy the land they worked; reformed judicial system and some local self- government

12 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Expansion East Russia expanded east Came into conflict with another imperial power—Japan At same time, revolution brewing Growing Unrest Defeat shocked many Russians, added to unrest One group calling for change, Marxists—followed communist theories of Karl Marx War With Japan Early 1900s, Japan building empire, viewed Russia as threat 1904, Japanese forces attacked, defeated Russia in Russo-Japanese War Marxist Ideas Wanted to create socialist republic—no private property, state to own, distribute goods 1902, Vladimir Lenin called for revolution to overthrow czar War and Revolution

13 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Revolution Begins Bloody Sunday inspired many sectors of society to rise up against czar; rebellions broke out, czar’s strict rules disobeyed Workers went on strike, students protested in streets Czar promised reform, but did not follow through Massive strike in October; 2 million workers protested in streets The Revolution of , many Russians ready to rebel against czar January 22, Orthodox priest, Father Gapon, brought petition to czar at Winter Palace, listing number of demands Troops fired at group; hundreds died; day known as Bloody Sunday

14 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 In response to the rebellions and strikes, Nicholas II issued the October Manifesto, an official promise for reform and a more democratic government. Manifesto promised constitution Individual liberties to all, including freedom of speech, assembly Many gained right to vote Provisions Voters would elect representatives to the Duma, assembly to approve all laws Czar continue to rule, but not pass laws without approval of Duma Duma Nicholas II hoped Manifesto would end revolution Did not achieve balance between own power, democracy People still wanted reform End Revolution The October Manifesto

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16 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Cause and Effect What were some causes of the Russian Revolution of 1905? Answer(s): growing unrest, pogroms, crack down on revolutionary movements, defeat in Russo- Japanese War led to discontent, Bloody Sunday inspired rebellions against czar

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18 Nationalism in Europe Section 4 Video The Impact of Nationalism Click above to play the video.


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