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World History/Cultures Chapter 15- Reaction & Nationalism Section 4 Empire of the Czars.

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Presentation on theme: "World History/Cultures Chapter 15- Reaction & Nationalism Section 4 Empire of the Czars."— Presentation transcript:

1 World History/Cultures Chapter 15- Reaction & Nationalism Section 4 Empire of the Czars

2 A. Background A. Background 1. Population 1. Population a. 60 nationalities a. 60 nationalities b. 2/3 Slavs b. 2/3 Slavs c. 100 languages c. 100 languages 2. Geography 2. Geography a. Two times the size of the USA. a. Two times the size of the USA. b. Land is primarily plains. b. Land is primarily plains. 3. Economy 3. Economy a. Agricultural economy based on serfdom. a. Agricultural economy based on serfdom. b. Little industry due to serf based agriculture. b. Little industry due to serf based agriculture.

3 B. Alexander I ( ) B. Alexander I ( ) 1. Little reform 1. Little reform 2. Granted a constitution to Russian ruled Poland. 2. Granted a constitution to Russian ruled Poland. C. Decembrist Revolt C. Decembrist Revolt Russian officers wanted to institute a constitutional 1. Russian officers wanted to institute a constitutional government, reform economy, and free serfs. government, reform economy, and free serfs. 2. Revolt was crushed but inspired future revolutions. 2. Revolt was crushed but inspired future revolutions.

4 D. Nicholas I D. Nicholas I 1. Imposed greater oppression. 1. Imposed greater oppression. 2. Demand for reform persisted. 2. Demand for reform persisted. E. Alexander II "Czar Liberator" 1. Freed serfs to provide cheap labor for industry. 1. Freed serfs to provide cheap labor for industry. 2. Established "Zemtvos" (elected assemblies) 2. Established "Zemtvos" (elected assemblies) a. ran provinces a. ran provinces b. Controlled by wealthy noblemen. b. Controlled by wealthy noblemen.

5 3. Other reforms a. eased restrictions on newspapers a. eased restrictions on newspapers b. limited authority of secret police b. limited authority of secret police c. expanded education c. expanded education d. modernized judicial system d. modernized judicial system e. reorganized the army e. reorganized the army 4. Failed to stop growth of revolutionary movements. 5. Assassinated by revolutionaries in 1881.

6 F. Radical Movements 1. Anarchy - advocated the absence of government. 1. Anarchy - advocated the absence of government. 2. Nihilist - wanted Czars autocracy destroyed. ADD: Belief in no authority! 2. Nihilist - wanted Czars autocracy destroyed. ADD: Belief in no authority! 3. Populism - peasants would revolt, overthrow czar, 3. Populism - peasants would revolt, overthrow czar, and establish socialist government. and establish socialist government. G. Alexander III 1. Reversed father's reforms. 1. Reversed father's reforms. 2. Vowed to crush revolutionaries. 2. Vowed to crush revolutionaries. 3. Promoted "Russification" (unite all Russian people) 3. Promoted "Russification" (unite all Russian people) a. Persecuted all non-Russians or those a. Persecuted all non-Russians or those against czar. against czar. b. Pogroms-massacre of Jews. b. Pogroms-massacre of Jews.

7 H. Nicholas II ( ) Last Czar!! 1.Autocratic rule 2.Easily influenced by others (Rasputin) 3.Revolutionary mood sweeps through Russia a. “Bloody Sunday” - January 1905 Peaceful demonstration of workers trying to present petition for reform to Czar. Peaceful demonstration of workers trying to present petition for reform to Czar. Soldiers of Czar open fire killing many. Soldiers of Czar open fire killing many. To appease people Czar Nicholas II creates a powerless “Duma” (legislature). To appease people Czar Nicholas II creates a powerless “Duma” (legislature). People not fooled- continue to demand reform. People not fooled- continue to demand reform. b. “October Manifesto” issued Nicholas II forced to make reform or will be forced to abdicate. 2.Manifesto a.Granted civil rights to people. b.Allowed Duma to make laws.

8 Nicolas II Last Czar of Russia

9 Rasputin: The Mad Monk/Party animal

10 Last of the Czars: Dynasty in Decline

11 Last of the Czars: Revolution


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