Presentation on theme: "RUSSIA. THE MODERNIZATION OF RUSSIA A. Russia's rulers saw nationalism as a potential challenge to the Empire and realized that Russia's survival depended."— Presentation transcript:
THE MODERNIZATION OF RUSSIA A. Russia's rulers saw nationalism as a potential challenge to the Empire and realized that Russia's survival depended upon adoption of "modernization.''
THE MODERNIZATION OF RUSSIA B. The "Great Reforms" 1. The Crimean War (1853-56) sped up the modernization of Russia –a. Russia's defeat showed how badly the country had fallen behind the industrializing West. –b. The war also created the need for reforms because its hardships led to the threat of peasant uprisings.
THE MODERNIZATION OF RUSSIA 2. Serfdom was still the basic social institution of agrarian 19th century Russia. It was abolished in 1861; collective ownership of the land was established.
THE MODERNIZATION OF RUSSIA 3. Additional Reforms a. Local assemblies (zemstvos) were established. b. The legal system was reformed. Independent courts were established. Equality before the law was declared.
THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF RUSSIA 1. The assassination of Alexander II (1881) brought political reform to an end, but economic reform surged onward. He is succeeded by his son Alexander III
THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF RUSSIA Alexander III was second in line to the throne after his older brother Nicholas. On his deathbed in 1865, Nicholas asked Alexander to marry his fiancé, Dagmar of Denmark (sister of Alexandra, wife of Edward of England) – a happy marriage. Became very reactionary after his father’s assassination. Tried to suppress the Nihilists. Also Alexander engaged in anti-semitism – supporting pogroms. Became the anti-reformer of politically liberal ideas.
THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF RUSSIA 2. Economic reform was carried out by Sergei Witte, the minister of finance from 1892 to 1903. a. Railroad construction stimulated the economy and inspired nationalism and imperialism. The most-notable construction was the trans- Siberian line. b. Protective tariffs were raised. c. Foreign ideas and money were
THE INDUSTRIALIZATION OF RUSSIA 3. Nicholas II (1894 – 1917) –Became tsar at age 26 on the sudden death of his father, Alexander III. Not really ready for the job because most expected Alexander to live another 20 to 30 years. Left much of the economic reforms to Sergei Witte. Relied on his wife Alexandra of Hesse and was a devoted family man –Hated democracy and turned his back on political reforms. (He had seen his grandfather assassinated.) –More pogroms –Despised by most Russians
THE REVOLUTION OF 1905 Imperialist ambitions brought defeat at the hands of Japan in 1905 and political upheaval at home. (Russo-Japanese War)
THE REVOLUTION OF 1905 1. The ''Bloody Sunday'' massacre (January 22 - led by Father Gapon) when the tsar's troops fired on a crowd of protesting workers, produced a wave of indignation. 2. By the summer of 1905, strikes, uprisings, revolts, and mutinies were sweeping the country.
THE REVOLUTION OF 1905 3. A general strike in October forced Nicholas II to issue the October Manifesto, which granted full civil liberties and promised a popularly elected (universal male suffrage) parliament (Duma). The reform split the opposition. 4. The Social Democrats rejected the manifesto and led a bloody workers' uprising in Moscow in December
THE REVOLUTION OF 1905 5. Middle class moderates helped the government repress the uprising and survive as a constitutional monarchy. The czar retained absolute veto power. –a. New constitution - Fundamental Laws –b. Revision of electoral law which increased membership of the propertied classes in the Duma
THE REVOLUTION OF 1905 6. Peter Stolypin, Chief Minister: agrarian reforms broke down collective village ownership. His motto was "wager on the strong'' and he encouraged enterprising peasants.