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Russia: Reform & Reaction

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Presentation on theme: "Russia: Reform & Reaction"— Presentation transcript:

1 Russia: Reform & Reaction

2 Conditions in Russia Russia-great world power “colossus” (giant)
Despite size, economically & socially underdeveloped Rigid social structure- serfs

3 Orthodoxy, Autocracy, & Nationalism
Attempts to “Russify” Russia Persecution of minorities Russia had acquired a large Jewish population (former Poland/Ukraine) Official persecution- Pogroms (violent mob attacks)- many fled Russia

4 Russian Absolutism Ruled by czars (kings) with absolute power
-Alexander I ( ) -Nicholas I ( ) -Alexander II ( ) -Alexander III ( ) -Nicholas II ( )

5 Decembrist Revolt (1825) Led by group of army officers who learned liberal ideas fighting Napoleon Books were banned & those with liberal ideas exiled or hospitalized Nicholas I- “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, & Nationalism”

6 Reforms of Alexander II
Emancipated the serf Trial by jury Reformed military Local government Zemstvos- elected assemblies responsible for local matters (road repair, schools)

7 Reaction to Change Many still dissatisfied-socialists spread ideas
“People’s Will” assassinated Alexander II Alexander III reacts with harsh methods “Russification” of non-Russians, especially Jews Pogroms- violent mob attacks on Jews Many Russians fled to U.S.

8 Bloody Sunday Russian army suffered defeats Discontent is unleashed
Father George Gapon- “Little Father” Called for a march to demonstrate the sufferings to the czar Sunday Jan. 22, 1905 Troops shot demonstrators, killing any trust in the czar

9 Revolution of 1905 Bloody Sunday sparks revolts across Russia
Forced Nicholas to issue reforms October Manifesto-promises freedoms Summons a Duma (elected nat’l assembly) Divided revolutionaries

10 Results Nicholas II soon dissolves Duma
New Prime Minister-Peter Stolypin Harsh tactics to restore order Regain support by issuing reforms, but too limited Assassinated in 1911 Russia still an autocracy filled with unrest

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