Presentation on theme: "Russia: Reform and Reaction"— Presentation transcript:
1 Russia: Reform and Reaction Section 22-5ppAlthough serfdom had nearly disappeared from Western Europe by the 1700’s, it survived and spread in Russia, into the 1800s.Nobles had almost total control over the serfs, who were treated brutally
2 Preview Questions How did conditions in Russia affect progress? Why did the czars follow a cycle of absolutism, reform, and reaction?How did the problems of industrialization contribute to the growing crisis and outbreak of revolution?
3 Conditions in Russia Obstacles to Progress Czars Social Structure Fear losing powerImprison or exile criticsSocial StructureNobles resist changeSerfdomPeasantsSoldiersFactory workersOther nations viewed Russia as a colossus- Huge supply of natural resources- Large, diverse population- Expansionist goals?
4 Russian Absolutism Alexander I Decembrist Revolt Resisted change for fear of alienating noblesJoined conservative powersDecembrist RevoltLiberals demanded reformSuppressed by Nicholas I
5 Russian Absolutism Nicholas I Suppressed liberals through censorship and exile“Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationalism”Orthodoxy: Strong ties between Orthodox Church and governmentAutocracy: Absolute power of the stateNationalism: Respect for Russian tradition suppression of non-Russian groupsNicholas I realized the need for reform, but feared alienating the nobles and losing their supportHe realized the need for reform
6 Absolute Rulers Alexander II Emancipated serfs in 1861 Set up zemstvos Encouraged industrializationA widespread popular reaction to Russia’s defeat in the Crimean War inspired changes.Russia’s defeat in the Crimean War revealed its backwardnessFreeing the serfs brought social problems and the need for further reform
7 Absolute Rulers Alexander III Harsh treatment of reformers RussificationInsisted on Russian language and religionNon-conformers were exiledPersecution of JewsPogromsIncreased emigrationAlexander III inherited the throne after terrorists bombed his father’s carriage in March 1881
8 Absolute Rulers Nicholas II Russia industrializes (at last!) Created social problemsRise in socialism
9 Revolution of 1905 Bloody Sunday Workers led peaceful protest Fired on by militaryKilled people’s faith in the czar
10 Revolution of 1905 Wave of revolts followed Bloody Sunday October ManifestoNew personal libertiesCreated legislature called DumaDissolved for criticizing gov’t