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Russia: Reform and Reaction

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Presentation on theme: "Russia: Reform and Reaction"— Presentation transcript:

1 Russia: Reform and Reaction
Section 22-5 pp Although serfdom had nearly disappeared from Western Europe by the 1700’s, it survived and spread in Russia, into the 1800s. Nobles had almost total control over the serfs, who were treated brutally

2 Preview Questions How did conditions in Russia affect progress?
Why did the czars follow a cycle of absolutism, reform, and reaction? How did the problems of industrialization contribute to the growing crisis and outbreak of revolution?

3 Conditions in Russia Obstacles to Progress Czars Social Structure
Fear losing power Imprison or exile critics Social Structure Nobles resist change Serfdom Peasants Soldiers Factory workers Other nations viewed Russia as a colossus - Huge supply of natural resources - Large, diverse population - Expansionist goals?

4 Russian Absolutism Alexander I Decembrist Revolt
Resisted change for fear of alienating nobles Joined conservative powers Decembrist Revolt Liberals demanded reform Suppressed by Nicholas I

5 Russian Absolutism Nicholas I
Suppressed liberals through censorship and exile “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationalism” Orthodoxy: Strong ties between Orthodox Church and government Autocracy: Absolute power of the state Nationalism: Respect for Russian tradition suppression of non-Russian groups Nicholas I realized the need for reform, but feared alienating the nobles and losing their support He realized the need for reform

6 Absolute Rulers Alexander II Emancipated serfs in 1861 Set up zemstvos
Encouraged industrialization A widespread popular reaction to Russia’s defeat in the Crimean War inspired changes. Russia’s defeat in the Crimean War revealed its backwardness Freeing the serfs brought social problems and the need for further reform

7 Absolute Rulers Alexander III Harsh treatment of reformers
Russification Insisted on Russian language and religion Non-conformers were exiled Persecution of Jews Pogroms Increased emigration Alexander III inherited the throne after terrorists bombed his father’s carriage in March 1881

8 Absolute Rulers Nicholas II Russia industrializes (at last!)
Created social problems Rise in socialism

9 Revolution of 1905 Bloody Sunday Workers led peaceful protest
Fired on by military Killed people’s faith in the czar

10 Revolution of 1905 Wave of revolts followed Bloody Sunday
October Manifesto New personal liberties Created legislature called Duma Dissolved for criticizing gov’t

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