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World History Chapter 10 Section 5 “Russia: Reform & Reaction” November 11 & 12, 2013 Woodridge High School Mr. Bellisario.

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Presentation on theme: "World History Chapter 10 Section 5 “Russia: Reform & Reaction” November 11 & 12, 2013 Woodridge High School Mr. Bellisario."— Presentation transcript:

1 World History Chapter 10 Section 5 “Russia: Reform & Reaction” November 11 & 12, 2013 Woodridge High School Mr. Bellisario

2 Lesson Objectives Describe major obstacles to progress in Russia. Explain why Tsar followed a cycle of absolutism, reform, and reaction. Understand why the problems of industrialization contributed to the outbreak of revolution.

3 Conditions in Russia Affected Progress 1815 Russia was largest, most populated nation in Europe & world – 1600’s explorers expanded across Siberia to Pacific – Peter & Catherine the Greats added lands on Baltic & Black Seas – 1800’s expanded into Central Asia

4 Conditions in Russia Affected Progress Looked on as a colossus (giant), but disliked by Western Europe because of autocratic government & ideas of expansion Russian czar’s need to be in absolute control, kept the nation from modernizing – Rigid social structure – Land- owning nobility did not want to change – Most Russians were serfs (peasants bound to the land) and were controlled by land-owning masters Had no desire to work hard Kept Russian economy backward Czars Followed Cycle > Absolutism > Reform > Reaction

5 Czars had ruled with absolute power Alexander I (1801) – Seemed open to liberal ideas – Eased censorship, promoted education, talked about freeing serfs – Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, reforms stopped – Tried to limit power of landowners over serfs

6 Czars had ruled with absolute power 1825, December Revolt – By army officers – Demanded constitution

7 Czars had ruled with absolute power Nicholas I – Suppressed Decembrists & cracked down on dissenters – Used police spies, banned books – Russian liberals were shut up in mental hospitals or 150,000 sent to Siberia – Three pillars of Russian absolutism: Orthodoxy – strong ties between Russian Orthodox Church & govt Autocracy – absolute control of govt by czar Nationalism – respect for Russian traditions & suppression of non- Russians – New law code – Some economic reforms – Tried to limit power of landowners over serfs

8 Russian Reform: Alexander II Crimean War – between Russia & Ottomans over lands on Danube River – Britain & France helped Ottomans & invaded Crimean peninsula – Russian defeat

9 Russian Reform: Alexander II Liberals demanded reforms; students demonstrated – 1861 Alexander II emancipated (freed) the serfs – Problems Serfs had to buy land they’d worked for so long Too poor to do so Led to discontent among peasants

10 Russian Reform: Alexander II Alexander II set up local governments, elected Zemstovs (local assemblies) – Road repair, schools, agriculture – Some self-government – Trial by jury, eased censorship, tried to reform military, Encouraged industrial growth

11 Reaction: Revolutionary Groups Revolutionary group – People’s Will, bombed Alexander II’s carriage March 1881 Alexander III Increased secret police, restored censorship & sent critics to Siberia (gulags) – Program of Russification – Suppress non-Russian cultures – One language = Russian – One church = Russian Orthodox

12 Reaction Large Jewish population severely persecuted – pogroms (violent mob attacks & massacres on helpless people, like the Jews) – Limited number of Jews allowed in universities & to be lawyers, doctors – Forced Jews to live in restricted areas or to become refugees (people forced to flee from their homelands)

13 Problems of Industrialization Contributed to Growing Crisis & Outbreak of Revolution in Russia Building Russian industry – 1890’s finally entered industrial age (100 years behind western Europe) – Nicholas II’s finance minister, Count Witte, his key goal was economic development Railroad building Connect coal & iron mines with factories Move goods across Russia Foreign money to build Trans- Siberian Railroad – Problems – slums bred discontent (Vladimir Ulyanov = Lenin)

14 Russo-Japanese War 1904, Russia was defeated & humiliated

15 Protestors & Bloody Sunday After the Russo-Japanese war, protestors, workers went on strike for shorter hours & better wages, wanted corrupt government out March let by Orthodox priest to Czar’s palace in St. Petersburg, Jan. 1905 – Czar ordered soldiers to protect palace – Hundreds were killed or injured – “Bloody Sunday” – people’s faith & trust in czar gone

16 Results of “Bloody Sunday” More strikes Workers took over local governments Peasants revolted & demanded land, Minorities wanted independence, Terrorists killed officials – Result> Led to minor changes in Russia

17 Nicholas II’s Reforms October Manifesto Summoned Duma (elected national legislature) – Freedom of speech & assembly

18 1906 1906 disbanded Duma & appointed new prime minister Peter Stolypin Arrests, pogroms, executions > 1st step to restore order Some reforms – Land reforms – to get peasant support – Strengthened Zemtovs – Improved education

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