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World History Chapter 10 Section 5 “Russia: Reform & Reaction”

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1 World History Chapter 10 Section 5 “Russia: Reform & Reaction”
November 11 & 12, 2013 Woodridge High School Mr. Bellisario

2 Lesson Objectives Describe major obstacles to progress in Russia.
Explain why Tsar followed a cycle of absolutism, reform, and reaction. Understand why the problems of industrialization contributed to the outbreak of revolution.

3 Conditions in Russia Affected Progress
1815 Russia was largest, most populated nation in Europe & world 1600’s explorers expanded across Siberia to Pacific Peter & Catherine the Greats added lands on Baltic & Black Seas 1800’s expanded into Central Asia

4 Conditions in Russia Affected Progress
Looked on as a colossus (giant), but disliked by Western Europe because of autocratic government & ideas of expansion Russian czar’s need to be in absolute control, kept the nation from modernizing Rigid social structure Land- owning nobility did not want to change Most Russians were serfs (peasants bound to the land) and were controlled by land-owning masters Had no desire to work hard Kept Russian economy backward Czars Followed Cycle > Absolutism > Reform > Reaction

5 Czars had ruled with absolute power
Alexander I (1801) Seemed open to liberal ideas Eased censorship, promoted education, talked about freeing serfs Napoleon invaded Russia in 1812, reforms stopped Tried to limit power of landowners over serfs

6 Czars had ruled with absolute power
1825, December Revolt By army officers Demanded constitution

7 Czars had ruled with absolute power
Nicholas I Suppressed Decembrists & cracked down on dissenters Used police spies, banned books Russian liberals were shut up in mental hospitals or 150,000 sent to Siberia Three pillars of Russian absolutism: Orthodoxy – strong ties between Russian Orthodox Church & govt Autocracy – absolute control of govt by czar Nationalism – respect for Russian traditions & suppression of non-Russians New law code Some economic reforms Tried to limit power of landowners over serfs

8 Russian Reform: Alexander II
Crimean War – between Russia & Ottomans over lands on Danube River Britain & France helped Ottomans & invaded Crimean peninsula Russian defeat

9 Russian Reform: Alexander II
Liberals demanded reforms; students demonstrated 1861 Alexander II emancipated (freed) the serfs Problems Serfs had to buy land they’d worked for so long Too poor to do so Led to discontent among peasants

10 Russian Reform: Alexander II
Alexander II set up local governments, elected Zemstovs (local assemblies) Road repair, schools, agriculture Some self-government Trial by jury, eased censorship, tried to reform military, Encouraged industrial growth

11 Reaction: Revolutionary Groups
Revolutionary group – People’s Will, bombed Alexander II’s carriage March 1881 Alexander III Increased secret police, restored censorship & sent critics to Siberia (gulags) Program of Russification Suppress non-Russian cultures One language = Russian One church = Russian Orthodox

12 Reaction Large Jewish population severely persecuted – pogroms (violent mob attacks & massacres on helpless people, like the Jews) Limited number of Jews allowed in universities & to be lawyers, doctors Forced Jews to live in restricted areas or to become refugees (people forced to flee from their homelands)

13 Problems of Industrialization Contributed to Growing Crisis & Outbreak of Revolution in Russia
Building Russian industry 1890’s finally entered industrial age (100 years behind western Europe) Nicholas II’s finance minister, Count Witte, his key goal was economic development Railroad building Connect coal & iron mines with factories Move goods across Russia Foreign money to build Trans-Siberian Railroad Problems – slums bred discontent (Vladimir Ulyanov = Lenin)

14 Russo-Japanese War 1904, Russia was defeated & humiliated

15 Protestors & Bloody Sunday
After the Russo-Japanese war, protestors, workers went on strike for shorter hours & better wages, wanted corrupt government out March let by Orthodox priest to Czar’s palace in St. Petersburg, Jan. 1905 Czar ordered soldiers to protect palace Hundreds were killed or injured “Bloody Sunday” – people’s faith & trust in czar gone

16 Results of “Bloody Sunday”
More strikes Workers took over local governments Peasants revolted & demanded land, Minorities wanted independence, Terrorists killed officials Result> Led to minor changes in Russia

17 Nicholas II’s Reforms October Manifesto
Summoned Duma (elected national legislature) Freedom of speech & assembly

18 1906 1906 disbanded Duma & appointed new prime minister Peter Stolypin
Arrests, pogroms, executions > 1st step to restore order Some reforms Land reforms – to get peasant support Strengthened Zemtovs Improved education

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