Presentation on theme: "Reform and the Revolution in Russia SWBAT: EXPLAIN WHY NATIONALISM IN RUSSIA WAS DIFFICULT AND HOW LIBERAL REPRESSION BY THE GOV’T LED TO REVOLUTION. HOMEWORK:"— Presentation transcript:
Reform and the Revolution in Russia SWBAT: EXPLAIN WHY NATIONALISM IN RUSSIA WAS DIFFICULT AND HOW LIBERAL REPRESSION BY THE GOV’T LED TO REVOLUTION. HOMEWORK: FINISH THE BLOODY SUNDAY LETTER. DO NOW: WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LIBERALISM AND CONSERVATISM?
Russia and Nationalism Remember, for nationalism to happen and nations to rise, certain commonalities need to exist between people: What are they? Russia is so large and diverse, nationalism has a hard time taking hold. Russia is going to face problems: Linguistically Geographically Historically Religiously
Russia lags in Industrialization While Russia had the largest territory and population of any European nation, industrial development, which had strengthened the West, lagged in Russia. Why? Most of Russia’s natural resource lay undeveloped. Ports were blocked by ice for much of the year. Exits from the seas were blocked by other countries. Left Russia landlocked.
Ethnic and Cultural Diversity Unlike other homogenous European nations, Russia is very diverse. Multiple ethnicities: White Russians to the west, the largest group Ukrainians to the agricultural south Great Russians in the north and central Russia. These are the largest and doesn’t take into account smaller ethnic types like Poles and Finns. Most of these groups descended from common Slavic ancestors, but each had its own language, customs, and history.
Alexander II In 1855, Alexander II became czar. He realized that compared to the rest of Europe, Russia was lagging behind. His goal: modernization. First step towards modernization: emancipate the serfs.
Serfdom In Russia, serfs were bound to people and not the land. They could not leave their villages or master’s homes without their owners’ permissions or a government order. The problem with serfdom (other than the fact is was slavery)? Restricted the labor pool. Factory owners needed workers, and they needed free people. Prevented industrial modernization. Alexander II issued the Emancipation Edict which freed all serfs.
Alexander’s other Reforms Reformed the courts to look more like Western European courts. Helped reduce delays and corruption. Limited the powers of the secret police. Gave greater freedom of the press. Expanded education. And reduced the period of active military service from 25 years to 6.
Response from radicals 2 groups: Nihilists : believed in building a completely new Russia. Meant abolishing the existing political, economic, and social structures. Populists : opposed the Tsarist regime and industrialization in the 1860s, 70s and 80s. Populists were especially disliked by the gov’t and many were arrested. These populists turned radical and formed a movement called People’s Will. Group used terrorism i.e. bombings and assassinations to try and force the gov’t to give into demands. Eventually the group assassinated Alexander II.
Time of Repression Czars Alexander III and Nicolas II saw liberalism as a threat and did everything in their power to stop its spread. Many of Alexander II’s reforms were overturned. His successors Used censorship. Controlled the church and schools. Used spied and informers. Imprisoned and exiled suspected liberals. Discriminated against suspected minorities. Led to anti-Jewish riots called pogroms which the gov’t failed to stop.
Socialism in Russia Industrialization led to a working class looking for rights, like creating unions and the ability to strike. The Russian gov’t’s attempts to block all changes led o the Social Democratic Labor Party modeled after the German SDP. The group grew increasingly radical and terrorism increased.
Bloody Sunday From , Russia went to war with Japan and to the surprise of the world, Japan won. Exposed a very corrupt, inefficient, and oppressive Russian gov’t. People’s anger and discontent grew. On January 22, 1905, or “Bloody Sunday”, that anger came to a head. The czar’s troops fired upon unarmed strikers on their way to deliver a petition to him. This triggered the Revolution of 1905.
Revolution of 1905 Russians responded with violent street fighting and protests. Mutinies occurred in the army and navy. In response the czar issued the October Manifesto, promising individual liberties. Also promised elections to a parliament called the Duma.
Activity Read and mark up the Manifesto Write a letter taking on the persona of a survivor of Bloody Sunday or a family member who lost someone during Bloody Sunday. Using your notes and the manifesto below write a letter to a friend discussing the events that led to Bloody Sunday, what happened Bloody Sunday, what your feelings are on the promises made in the October Manifesto by Czar Nicholas II below and whether you think he will follow through. This needs to be near finished with 5 minutes left to class.
Repression continues… Eventually the gov’t halted the revolution with severe repression and executions. Despite the October Manifesto, autocracy continued. Czar dismissed the Duma when members insisted his ministers answer to them. A 1907 law gave more representation to the upper class. Voting rights were restricted.
Why didn’t the Russians overthrow the czar? Three reasons: 1. much of the army remained loyal and would not end the czar’s regime. 2. the French lent money to Russia to help its financial problems. 3. many revolutionary groups had different goals. The czarist regime would remain in effect until 1917.