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The English Monarchy and the Rise of Constitutionalism

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1 The English Monarchy and the Rise of Constitutionalism
A. England’s Monarchs in the High Middle Ages 1. William the Conqueror and the Norman Invasion ( ) a. Tribes of people known as Anglo-Saxons settled in England in the early Middle Ages and ruled the island until the year 1066 1) Edward the Confessor, the Anglo-Saxon King of England, died in 1066 and the kingship was taken by Harold Godwinson who belonged to one of the most powerful noble families in England 2) Edward the Confessor’s cousin, Duke William of Normandy, also claimed the throne of England

2 The Battle of Hastings—October 14, 1066
1) The forces of Harold Godwinson and Duke William met at Hastings, in Southern England, during which William’s mounted knights defeated the Anglo-Saxon infantry c. Duke William of Normandy was crowned King of England on December 25 (Christmas Day) in 1066 William expanded the power of the king in England 1) King William sent royal officials to collect information regarding who owned how much land in England. They compiled a book of records known as the “Domesday Book” in order to tax people effectively a)William claimed about 20% of the land for he and his family 2) William required all knights and vassals pledge fealty directly to him, rather than their liege lord 3) William divided England into counties and within each county were smaller “shires.” He appointed a “royal sheriff” to oversee each shire

3 King Henry II Expands the Administrative and Legal Structure
in England System of taxation 1) Henry II hired tax officials, known as “barons of the exchequer” to count the tax payments which were collected at a local level by sheriffs Royal Courts 1) Henry II increased the number of cases that were held in the royal courts which took power away from local courts 2) Henry compiled a book of “common law” (law that was common to the whole kingdom) that was based on custom a) Royal officials surveyed local officials throughout England to develop a system of law based on the customs of the people

4 3) Henry II claimed the right to punish clergymen in the
royal courts a) traditionally, members of the clergy had been tried in Church courts b)Thomas Becket, the archbishop of Canterbury resisted Henry and claimed that clerics could only be tried in Church courts c) four knights went to Canterbury and murdered Thomas Becket in a cathedral d) the public was outraged by this event and the king was forced to allow the Church to try members of the clergy

5 King John I (1199-1216): The Nobles Strike Back
a. Many English nobles resented the growth of the king’s power and rose in rebellion during the reign of Henry’s son, King John I b. The English nobles forced King John I to sign the Magna Carta (The Great Charter) in 1215 which limited the power of the king to act without first consulting the nobles 1) the Magna Carta was used by the people of England to argue that the power of the monarch should be limited rather than absolute 2) the Magna Carta was a “feudal” document and asserted that the relationship between the king and his vassals was based on mutual rights and obligations 3) the Magna Carta was aimed at limiting government practices that affected the relations between the king and his vassals and between the king and the Church

6 King Edward I (1272-1307) and the Emergence of Parliament
a. Edward I began the long process of uniting all of the British Isles into a single kingdom 1) he conquered Wales 2) He started a war with Scotland to take control of the northern regions of the British Isles. He failed in his attempt to take control of Scotland (Braveheart) b. Edward I and Parliament 1) originally, the word Parliament applied to meetings of the king’s Great Council in which the greater nobles met with leading Church officials, the king’s judges and head advisors to deal with matters of justice 2) in need of more money, King Edward I invited two two knights from every county and two residents, called burgesses, from each city to meet with the Great Council to agree to new taxes; this was the first Parliament and is often referred to as “Model Parliament”

7 3) The English Parliament that Edward I created eventually
divided itself into two houses. The nobles and church officials became known as the House of Lords and the Knights and burgesses became known as the House of Commons (note: we use a two-house system, the Senate and House of Representatives in the U.S. Congress) The Hundred Years’ War: Edward III, The Black Prince, & HenryV a. Series of wars fought between England and France which lasted from b. Causes 1) A dispute broke out between England and France when the King of France, Charles IV, died without an heir 2) as the son of the daughter of King Phillip IV (the father of Charles IV), King Edward III of England had a claim to the throne of France as a close male heir 3) French practice, however, emphasized descent through the male line and a cousin of Charles IV, Philip, duke of Valois, became king as Philip VI

8 4) English monarchs had maintained possession of Gascony, a
territory in France dating back to King William I so the king of England was also a vassal to the King of France a) When Philip VI was named King of France, and Edward III’s claim denied, King Edward III refused to pledge homage to King Philip VI --in response, King Philip VI seized Gascony --Edward III responded by declaring war on Philip c. The First Phase of the Hundred Years’ War 1) The French army was made up of mostly mounted knights who fought on horseback whereas the English army consisted of cavalry supported by paid peasant foot soldiers and skilled archers; the English used the longbow which was able to fire arrows rapidly rather than the more common crossbow 2) The Battle of Crecy: just south of Flanders, the French forces fought the English army. English archers rained arrows down on the French and won the battle

9 In the aftermath of battle, Edward and the English
troops captured the French port of Calais to serve as post from where they could launch future invasions 3) The Campaigns of the Black Prince a) King Edward III’s son, Edward the Prince of Wales deliberately ravaged towns in France, burned crops, and looted anything of value, for this he earned the name “The Black Prince” b) The Black Prince avoided fighting big battles until he was forced to do so in 1356 4) The Battle of Poitiers (1356) a) English troops, commanded by the Black Prince, met French forces who were under the command of King John II b) The English army was victorious and King John II of France was taken as a prisoner of war

10 5) Peace of Bretigny (1359): This treaty ended what is known as
the first phase on the Hundred Years’ War. England won the Major battles in the war but were not strong enough to place the Entire country of France under the authority of the King of England a) The Peace of Bretigny required that France pay a large ransom for the release of King John II, the English territory of Gascony in France was enlarged, and King Edward III of England agreed to recant his claim to the throne of France in return for King John II’s promise to give up control of English lands in France d. The Second Phase of the Hundred Years’ War 1) King Charles V of France, son of John II, took the throne of France and set out to recover all lands in France that were controlled by England 2) Charles V avoided big battles and gradually destroyed England’s forts in France one by one a) by 1374 he had succeeded and negotiated a truce with England that was signed in 1396

11 The Third Phase of the Hundred Years’ War (1415-1425)
1) King Henry V of England and the Battle of Agincourt a) Henry V and England invaded France in 1415 and defeated the French army on a muddy field in Agincourt, France b) As the heavily-plated French cavalry attempted to cross the field, English bowman and infantry slaughtered them c) 1,500 French nobles died in this battle 2) Following Agincourt, Henry V and the English army conquered Normandy; he signed an alliance with the duke of Burgundy putting England in control of all northern France Joan of Arc and the End of the Hundred Years’ War 1) England seized the province of Orleans in France in 1428

12 2) Joan of Arc, a peasant girl who claimed God had
communicated with her and wanted her to free France from England’s control, convinced the king to allow her to march with the French army and fight to regain Orleans a) Joan supposedly inspired the French army who defeated the English and reclaimed Orleans b) Joan, however, was captured by the English who turned her over to the Inquisition of the Catholic Church who tried, convicted, and burned her at the stake on charges of heresy c) 25 years later, a Church court exonerated her of these charges and she was declared a saint by the Church in 1920 3) The war persisted for two until 1453 when the French army defeated the English in Normandy and Aquitaine 1) key to France’s success was the use of the cannon, a new weapon made possible by the invention of gunpowder

13 Edward III (1327-1377) and the Evolution of English Political
Institutions a. due to the need to raise money to fight the Hundred Years’ War, Edward III called Parliament frequently to gain permission to collect new taxes b. Edward III allowed Parliament to examine government accounts to ensure that tax money was being spent properly c. House of Lords and House of Commons were formally created during this era 1) House of Lords consisted of leading bishops, abbots, and top aristocrats and their positions in the House of Lords were passed down through heredity 2) House of Commons consisted of representatives of the shires and boroughs a) although the House of Lords had far more power, the House of Commons began the practice of drawing up petitions, which, if accepted by the king, became law

14 King Richard II, Henry IV and Political Instability in England
a. Following the death of Edward III in 1377, England began to experience internal instability as groups of aristocrats created factions and rivaled King Richard II for power 1) Henry of Lancaster, the leader of one of the factions, defeated the Richard II’s forces and killed him 2) Henry of Lancaster became the new king of England as Henry IV 3) His son, Henry V, was the king who led the English army to several victories in the Hundred Years’ War B. The Tudor Monarchs 1. The War of the Roses a. background 1) the toll of the Hundred Years’ War on the economy in England created a lot of fighting between aristocrats b. The War of the Roses was a civil war between the House of York, whose symbol was a white rose, against the House of Lancaster, whose symbol was the red rose

15 In 1485, Henry Tudor, duke of Richmond, defeated the last
king from the House of York, King Richard III, at Bosworth Field and established a new Tudor dynasty King Henry VII a. Henry VII ended the practice of “livery and maintenance,” the practice by which wealthy aristocrats maintained private armies of followers dedicated to the service of their lord b. Henry VII established the Court of the Star Chamber which did not use juries and allowed torture to be used to extract confessions c. Henry VII saved England a tremendous amount of money by using diplomacy to avoid costly wars; by avoiding war, he was able to reduce the taxes of the aristocracy and middle class which made the Tudor family very popular with the people of England

16 3. King Henry VIII—See Madness of Henry VIII Worksheet
4. King Edward VI ( ) a. When Henry VIII died in 1547, he was succeeded by his nine-year-old son Edward b. Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, a trusted advisor to Henry VIII, served as regent since Edward was to young to rule 1) Cranmer pushed England in a more Protestant direction a) clergy were permitted to marry b) eliminated Catholic images that Protestants considered to be false idols c) issued a Protestant Book of Common Prayer 2) Many people in England were outraged by the rapid advances of Protestant views

17 5. Queen Mary ( ) a. Mary was a devout Catholic who intended to restore Catholicism in England 1) many members of Parliament opposed this plan 2) she burned over 300 people who were convicted of heresy because they continued to practice Protestantism; for this she earned the nickname “Bloody Mary” b. Mary married Philip II, the son of Charles V and the future king of Spain 1) Philip was disliked by the people of England and the many disapproved of England’s alliance with Spain c. as a result of her policies, Mary achieved the opposite of what she had set out to do at the beginning of her reign; there were more Protestants in England at the end of her reign than had been at the beginning as people came to associate defiance of Catholicism with resistance to Spanish interference 1) with her death ended the restoration of Catholicism

18 Queen Elizabeth a. Elizabeth is considered the greatest monarch in England’s history because of the following reasons: 1) England rose from a relatively small island-kingdom to a leader of Protestant nations during her reign as queen 2) she laid the foundations for a world empire 3) she supported and participated in a cultural renaissance 4 ) she moved swiftly to resolve the difficult religious problems that she had inherited from Mary b. Elizabethan Religious Settlement (1559) 1) Elizabeth did not want to see England torn apart by religious matters; therefore, she created a religious plan for England based on moderation and compromise 2) The Act of Uniformity restored the Protestant Book of Common Prayer from the reign of Edward VI with some changes to make it more acceptable to Catholics 3) Elizabeth’s religious settlement was Protestant but it was a moderate form of Protestantism

19 4) Some Catholics and Puritans in England opposed the
Elizabethan settlement and tried to challenge Elizabeth’s government a) Elizabeth’s Catholic cousin Mary, queen of Scots, who was next in line to the throne, participated in several plots to have Elizabeth removed from power b) Mary was forced to flee Scotland due to an uprising led by Calvinist who wanted to remove their Catholic queen from power c) Elizabeth placed Mary under house arrest for 14 years and then had her beheaded to protect her regime from threats Elizabeth’s Government 1) Elizabeth avoided war through wit and careful planning 2) Unofficially, she encouraged English seaman to raid Spanish ships and colonies a) Francis Drake was a well-known privateer who plundered Spanish ships loaded with gold and silver

20 Elizabeth also provided aid to Huguenots and Dutch
Calvinist to weaken the power of France and Spain, the two major Catholic powers in Europe a) an uprising of Calvinists had been ongoing in the Netherlands which was controlled by Spain and by assisting the rebels, England weakened Spain 4) The Spanish Armada and the Protestant Wind a) King Philip II of Spain launched an attack on England with his powerful navy known as the Spanish Armada b) The English navy met the Spanish Armada and forced the Armada to retreat from the English Channel and go back to Spain c) The Spanish Armada was battered by storms during the retreat; the storm that led to the destruction of several Spanish ships became known as the “Protestant Wind”

21 The Stuart Family Rules England
1. King James VI of Scotland (son of Mary, queen of Scots) became King James I ( ) of England when Elizabeth died a. James I believed in the “divine right of kings”, that his power was given to him by God, and therefore did not respect the partnership that had developed between Parliament and the monarchy b. Problem with Puritans 1) Puritans, or Protestants in the Church of England who were inspired by the teachings of John Calvin, wanted James to eliminate the “episcopal” system of Church organization used in the Church of England a) the episcopal system allowed the king to appoint bishops which made them loyal to the crown and James wanted to retain this system in order to protect his power 2) Most of England’s gentry, or well-to-do landowners below the level of nobility had become Puritans and made up a significant portion of the House of Commons

22 King Charles I ( ) a. Early in the reign of Charles I, Parliament passed the Petition of Right to limit the power of the king 1) Petition of Right (1628) was passed by Parliament and prohibited the taxation without Parliament’s consent, arbitrary imprisonment, the quartering of soldiers in private homes, and the declaration of martial law in peacetime The mistakes of Charles I Charles decided since he could not work with parliament, he would not summon it to meet and sought to find ways to Collect taxes without Parliament’s cooperation a) a “ship tax” was levied by Charles on all costal towns to pay for costal defense; this alienated many members of England’s middle class 2) Charles married Henrietta Maria, the Catholic sister of the King Louis XIII of France, which aroused suspicion about Charles’ religious beliefs

23 3) King Charles I and the Archbishop of Canterbury, William
Laud, attempted to introduce more ritual into the Anglican Church which would make it very similar to Catholicism a) this angered the Puritans who saw the religion in England turning toward Catholic popery When King Charles attempted to impose the Anglican Book of Common Prayer on the Scottish Presbyterian Church, the Scots rose up in rebellion against the king c. Financial Problems cause King Charles I call on Parliament 1) financially strapped, King Charles was forced to call Parliament into session in order to gain their support in England’s war with Scotland 2) During the first session, Parliament forced the King to abolish arbitrary courts, get rid of the new taxes he had levied, and passed the Triennial Act which required the Parliament and king to meet at least once every three years 3) One group in Parliament was satisfied with these conditions but some radical Puritan members tried to push the reforms further; when King Charles tried to arrest the rebellious members of Parliament, the English Civil War erupted

24 The English Civil War and Oliver Cromwell (1642-1646)
1. Supporters of Parliament fought against those loyal to King Charles I in the first phase of the English Civil War a. Supporters of Parliament 1) Oliver Cromwell created the New Model Army that consisted mainly of extreme Puritans who believed they were doing God’s work 2) the New Model Army captured King Charles I in 1646 3) a division occurred among the supporters of Parliament when a group of Presbyterians tried to disband the New Model Army and restore Charles I as king of a Presbyterian state; Charles I fled to Scotland 2. Puritans fought against the Presbyterians in the second phase of the English Civil War a. the Puritans were victorious and recaptured and beheaded King Charles I

25 Oliver Cromwell Rules England
After the death of Charles I, Parliament abolished the system of monarchy and the House of Lords and proclaimed England a republic or commonwealth Cromwell faced many obstacles as Lord Protector of England 1) Cromwell sent the English army to crush a rebellion in Ireland during which he gained a reputation for the brutality with which the English treated the Irish 2) Levellers in England sought further reform in government by advancing the ideas of freedom of speech, religious toleration, and the right to vote for all male householders over the age of 21 3) Cromwell disbanded Parliament after some members advocated for the creation of a Presbyterian state church c. Since Cromwell was unable to rule using a constitutional basis, he used his military to maintain his authority 1) Cromwell divided England into eleven regions and assigned a major general to rule each as a military governor

26 E. Restoration of the Monarchy
1. Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 and the military establish- ment decided that arbitrary rule would not work so they decided to reestablish the monarchy in the person of Charles II. 2. The Government of King Charles II a. he reestablished the House of Lords b. Parliament maintained the power for which it had fought during the English Civil War like voting on new taxes and the abolition of arbitrary courts c. Parliament reestablished the Anglican Church as the official Church in England d. Charles reopened the theaters and taverns that were closed during the time that Oliver Cromwell ruled through Puritan principles.

27 e. Trouble for Charles II
1) the English people were suspicious of the brother of Charles II because he was Catholic and heir to the throne 2) Declaration of Indulgence: this was a bill passed by Charles II that suspended the laws that Parliament had passed against Catholics and Puritains a) Parliament forced the king to suspend the declaration 3) Test Act of 1673: Parliament passed this act which specified that only Anglicans could hold military and civil offices 4) Parliament attempted to pass a bill that would prevent James II from becoming king; although this bill failed, the division in Parliament created two political groups, the Tories and the Whigs a) Tories were suspicious of James II but did not believe that Parliament should interfere with the lawful succession to the throne

28 Whigs wanted to ban James from becoming king
and establish a Protestant king and they also tolerated dissenting ideas 5) Charles dismissed Parliament in 1681 and relied on loans from France to keep his government functioning 3. King James II ( ) a. when Charles II died, James became king and immediately attempted to promote Catholicism 1) against the Test Act, James named Catholics to high positions in the government, army, navy, and universities 2) he suspended the Declaration of Indulgence b. Parliament dealt with this issues because James II was an old man and his two daughters, Mary and Anne, were both Protestants c. Problems arose when James II’s second wife gave birth to a son, who would be raised Catholic and many in England feared the possibility of long-standing Catholic rule

29 F. The Glorious Revolution
1. A group of seven prominent English noblemen invited William of Orange, the husband of James’s daughter Mary, to invade England 2. William and Mary invaded England while James, his wife, and their infant son fled to France 3. With almost no bloodshed, William and Mary took the throne of England 4. William and Mary were required to sign the English Bill of Rights, which was written by Parliament, before being recognized as king and queen a. the Bill of Rights affirmed Parliament’s right to: 1) make laws 2) levy taxes 3) consent to the raising of a standing army G. Other Liberal Reforms 1. Toleration Act of 1689 granted Puritans the right of free public worship (Catholics were still excluded)

30 Although this act did not grant complete toleration in
England, it marks a turning point in English history since very few people would ever again be persecuted for their religious beliefs in England. 2. Parliament abolished the idea of divine-right-theory of kingship 3. Parliament did not have complete control of government but it Now had an unquestioned role in affairs of state

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